Trigonometric functions (both geometric and circular), relationships between lengths and angles in triangles and other topics relating to measuring triangles.
Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.
Trigonometry is most simply associated with planar right-angle triangles. The applicability to non-right-angle triangles exists, but, since any non-right-angle triangle (on a flat plane) can be bisected to create two right-angle triangles, most problems can be reduced to calculations on right-angle triangles. Thus the majority of applications relate to right-angle triangles.
One exception to this is spherical trigonometry, the study of triangles on spheres, surfaces of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry. Trigonometry on surfaces of negative curvature is part of hyperbolic geometry.
Trigonometric identities are equalities that involve trigonometric functions and are true for every single value of the occurring variables. Geometrically, these are identities involving certain functions of one or more angles.