Matrix calculus is about doing calculus, especially derivative and infinite series over spaces of vectors and matrices.

Matrix calculus studies derivatives and differentials of scalar, vector and matrix with respect to vector and matrix. It has been widely applied into different areas such as machine learning, numerical analysis, economics etc.

There are basically two methods.

  • Direct: Regard vectors and matrices as scalar so as to compute in the usual way in calculus. And The Matrix Cookbook provides a lot of basic facts.

  • Component-wise: Write everything in indices notation and compute in the usual way componentwisely. Einstein summation convention is frequently used.