Geometry assuming the parallel postulate: in a plane, given a line and a point not on that line, there is exactly one line parallel to the given line through the given point.

The geometry of Euclid is based on five axioms (Euclid called them postulates). Any geometry based on the first four of these is called an absolute geometry. The fifth one states:

If a line segment intersects two straight lines forming two interior angles on the same side that sum to less than two right angles, then the two lines, if extended indefinitely, meet on that side on which the angles sum to less than two right angles.

It was observed by Proclus that, in the presence of the the other four postulates, Euclid's fifth postulate can be replaced by Playfair's axiom:

Given a line and a point not on it, then one and only one line parallel to the given line can be drawn through the point.

The independence of the parallel postulate and its equivalent formulations from the first four axioms was shown by Beltrami in 1868.

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