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### How to prove that $\log(x)<x$ when $x>1$? [duplicate]

It's very basic but I'm having trouble to find a way to prove this inequality $\log(x)<x$ when $x>1$ ($\log(x)$ is the natural logarithm) I can think about the two graphs but I can't find ...
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### Limit of the nested radical $x_{n+1} = \sqrt{c+x_n}$

(Fitzpatrick Advanced Calculus 2e, Sec. 2.4 #12) For $c \gt 0$, consider the quadratic equation $x^2 - x - c = 0, x > 0$. Define the sequence $\{x_n\}$ recursively by fixing $|x_1| \lt c$ and then, ...
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### To sum $1+2+3+\cdots$ to $-\frac1{12}$

$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^s}$$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s)>1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ give the right answer?
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### Determinant of a rank $1$ update of a scalar matrix, or characteristic polynomial of a rank $1$ matrix

This question aims to create an "abstract duplicate" of numerous questions that ask about determinants of specific matrices (I may have missed a few): Characteristic polynomial of a matrix ...
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### Using gcd Bezout identity to solve linear Diophantine equations and congruences, and compute modular inverses and fractions

Isn't finding the inverse of $a$, that is, $a'$ in $aa'\equiv1\pmod{m}$ equivalent to solving the diophantine equation $aa'-mb=1$, where the unknowns are $a'$ and $b$? I have seem some answers on this ...
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### Sum of First $n$ Squares Equals $\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$

I am just starting into calculus and I have a question about the following statement I encountered while learning about definite integrals: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I really ...
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### Explain why $E(X) = \int_0^\infty (1-F_X (t)) \, dt$ for every nonnegative random variable $X$

Let $X$ be a non-negative random variable and $F_{X}$ the corresponding CDF. Show, $$E(X) = \int_0^\infty (1-F_X (t)) \, dt$$ when $X$ has : a) a discrete distribution, b) a continuous ...
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### Discrete logarithm tables for the fields $\Bbb{F}_8$ and $\Bbb{F}_{16}$.

The smallest non-trivial finite field of characteristic two is $$\Bbb{F}_4=\{0,1,\beta,\beta+1=\beta^2\},$$ where $\beta$ and $\beta+1$ are primitive cubic roots of unity, and zeros of the ...
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### Solving $\ge 2$ congruences by CRT = Chinese Remainder Theorem

How do I get the solution given by CRT to match another solution, e.g. the least positive? For example say I have X = 1234. I choose ...
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### Extended stars-and-bars problem(where the upper limit of the variable is bounded)

The problem of counting the solutions $(a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n)$ with integer $a_i\geq0$ for $i\in\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$ such that $$a_1+a_2+a_3+\ldots+a_n=N$$ can be solved with a stars-and-bars argument. ...
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### Why is $a^n - b^n$ divisible by $a-b$?
I did some mathematical induction problems on divisibility $9^n$ $-$ $2^n$ is divisible by 7. $4^n$ $-$ $1$ is divisible by 3. $9^n$ $-$ $4^n$ is divisible by 5. Can these be generalized as $a^n$ $-$...