All Questions

272,614 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
359
votes
0answers
14k views

The Ring Game on $K[x,y,z]$

I recently read about the Ring Game on MathOverflow, and have been trying to determine winning strategies for each player on various rings. The game has two players and begins with a commutative ...
348
votes
0answers
11k views

Does there exist a bijection of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with itself such that the forward map is connected but the inverse is not?

Let $(X,\tau), (Y,\sigma)$ be two topological spaces. We say that a map $f: \mathcal{P}(X)\to \mathcal{P}(Y)$ between their power sets is connected if for every $S\subset X$ connected, $f(S)\subset Y$ ...
209
votes
0answers
12k views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ $K_1=\left(\...
160
votes
0answers
3k views

Is there a categorical definition of submetry?

(Updated to include effective epimorphism.) This question is prompted by the recent discussion of why analysts don't use category theory. It demonstrates what happens when an analyst tries to use ...
123
votes
0answers
6k views

Is this really a categorical approach to integration?

Here's an article by Reinhard Börger I found recently whose title and content, prima facie, seem quite exciting to me, given my misadventures lately (like this and this); it's called, "A Categorical ...
105
votes
0answers
2k views

Application of Hilbert's basis theorem in representation theory

In Smalo: Degenerations of Representations of Associative Algebras, Milan J. Math., 2008 there is an application of Hilbert's basis theorem that I don't understand: Two orders are defined on the set ...
96
votes
0answers
3k views

What is the Picard group of $z^3=y(y^2-x^2)(x-1)$?

I'm actually doing much more with this affine surface than just looking for the Picard group. I have already proved many things about this surface, and have many more things to look at it, but the ...
89
votes
0answers
1k views

Does every ring of integers sit inside a ring of integers that has a power basis?

Given a finite extension of the rationals, $K$, we know that $K=\mathbb{Q}[\alpha]$ by the primitive element theorem, so every $x \in K$ has the form $$x = a_0 + a_1 \alpha + \cdots + a_n \alpha^n,$$ ...
75
votes
0answers
1k views

$\frac{1}{n}$ as a difference of Egyptian fractions with all denominators $<n$

Is there a good characterization of the set $S$ of positive integers $n$ such that $\frac{1}{n}$ can be represented as a difference of Egyptian fractions with all denominators $< n$? For example, $...
74
votes
0answers
2k views

Sorting of prime gaps

Let $g_i $ be the $i^{th}$ prime gap $p_{i+1}-p_i.$ If we re-arrange the sequence $ (g_{n,i})_{i=1}^n$ so that for any finite $n$ the gaps are arranged from smallest to largest we have a new sequence ...
72
votes
0answers
931 views
+50

Geometric way to view the truncated braid groups?

This is perhaps a vague question, but hopefully there exists literature on the subject. The question is motivated by an answer I gave to this question. I also asked a related question on MO, although ...
72
votes
0answers
5k views

Pullback and Pushforward Isomorphism of Sheaves

Suppose we have two schemes $X, Y$ and a map $f\colon X\to Y$. Then we know that $\operatorname{Hom}_X(f^*\mathcal{G}, \mathcal{F})\simeq \operatorname{Hom}_Y(\mathcal{G}, f_*\mathcal{F})$, where $\...
69
votes
0answers
1k views

Tate conjecture for Fermat varieties

I've been looking at Tate's Algebraic Cycles and Poles of Zeta Functions (hard to find online... Google books outline here) and have a question about his work on (conjecturing!) the Tate conjecture ...
66
votes
0answers
2k views

Arithmetic-geometric mean of 3 numbers

The arithmetic-geometric mean$^{[1]}$$\!^{[2]}$ of 2 numbers $a$ and $b$ is denoted $\operatorname{AGM}(a,b)$ and defined as follows: $$\text{Let}\quad a_0=a,\quad b_0=b,\quad a_{n+1}=\frac{a_n+b_n}2,...
60
votes
0answers
881 views

Classification of local Artin (commutative) rings which are finite over an algebraically closed field.

A result in deformation theory states that if every morphism $Y=\operatorname{Spec}(A)\rightarrow X$ where $A$ is a local Artin ring finite over $k$ can be extended to every $Y'\supset Y$ where $Y'$ ...
59
votes
0answers
794 views

Conjectured formula for the Fabius function

The Fabius function is the unique function ${\bf F}:\mathbb R\to[-1, 1]$ satisfying the following conditions: a functional–integral equation$\require{action} \require{enclose}{^{\texttip{\dagger}{a ...
56
votes
0answers
1k views

Determining information in minimum trials (combinatorics problem)

A student has to pass a exam, with $k2^{k-1}$ questions to be answered by yes or no, on a subject he knows nothing about. The student is allowed to pass mock exams who have the same questions as the ...
56
votes
1answer
1k views

Are the sums $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ transcendental?

This question is inspired by my answer to the question "How to compute $\prod_{n=1}^\infty\left(1+\frac{1}{n!}\right)$?". The sums $f(k) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{(n!)^k}$ (for positive integer $...
55
votes
0answers
2k views

Mondrian Art Problem Upper Bound for defect

Divide a square of side $n$ into any number of non-congruent rectangles. If all the sides are integers, what is the smallest possible difference in area between the largest and smallest rectangles? ...
55
votes
0answers
1k views

On the Constant Rank Theorem and the Frobenius Theorem for differential equations.

Recently I was reading chapter $4$ (p. $60$) of The Implicit Function Theorem: History, Theorem, and Applications (By Steven George Krantz, Harold R. Parks) on proof's of the equivalence of the ...
52
votes
1answer
1k views

If polynomials are almost surjective over a field, is the field algebraically closed?

Let $K$ be a field. Say that polynomials are almost surjective over $K$ if for any nonconstant polynomial $f(x)\in K[x]$, the image of the map $f:K\to K$ contains all but finitely many points of $K$. ...
49
votes
0answers
1k views

Can we remove any prime number with this strange process?

This is a little algorithm I made today, which may appear to be quite complex, so I will start with an example. Questions are at the end of the post. The process goes as follows: Start with the ...
48
votes
0answers
1k views

Why do all the Platonic Solids exist?

In three dimensions it is quite easy to prove that there exist at most five Platonic Solids. Each has to have at least three polygons meeting at each vertex, and the angles of these polygons have to ...
47
votes
0answers
1k views

Finding primes so that $x^p+y^p=z^p$ is unsolvable in the p-adic units

On my number theory exam yesterday, we had the following interesting problem related to Fermat's last theorem: Suppose $p>2$ is a prime. Show that $x^p+y^p=z^p$ has a solution in $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\...
47
votes
0answers
1k views

Subgroups as isotropy subgroups and regular orbits on tuples

Is there some natural or character-theoretic description of the minimum value of d such that G has a regular orbit on Ωd, where G is a finite group acting faithfully on a set Ω? Motivation: In some ...
44
votes
0answers
939 views

Convergence of $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n!)}{n}$

Is there a way to assess the convergence of the following series? $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{\sin(n!)}{n}$$ From numerical estimations it seems to be convergent but I don't know how to prove it.
44
votes
0answers
2k views

Can someone explain this integration trick for log-sine integrals?

I was working on this rather challenging log-sine integral: $$ \int_{0}^{2\pi}x^{2}\ln^{2}\left(2\sin\left(x \over 2\right)\right)\,{\rm d}x = {13\pi^{5} \over 45} $$ The upper limit is a waiver ...
43
votes
0answers
1k views

A question about the divisibility of sum of 2 consecutive primes.

Well as I was curious about the sum of $2$ consecutive primes, after proving that the sum for the odd primes always has at least 3 prime divisors, I came up with this question: Find the least ...
42
votes
0answers
995 views

Why is a PDE a submanifold (and not just a subset)?

I struggle a bit with understanding the idea behind the definition of a PDE on a fibred manifold. Let $\pi: E \to M$ be a smooth locally trivial fibre bundle. In Gromovs words a partial differential ...
42
votes
0answers
1k views

complete, finitely axiomatizable, theory with 3 countable models

Does it exist a complete, finitely axiomatizable, first-order theory $T$ with exactly 3 countable non-isomorphic models? A few relevant comments: There is a classical example of a complete theory ...
41
votes
0answers
935 views

What does the space of non-diagonalizable matrices look like?

Let $k$ be a field $\mathbb C$. Consider the action of $G=GL_n(k)$ by conjugation on the set of $n\times n$ matrices over $k$. The collection $X$ of matrices with repeated eigenvalues over $\...
41
votes
0answers
698 views

Dedekind Sum Congruences

For $a,b,c \in \mathbb{N}$, let $a^{\prime} = \gcd(b,c)$, $b^{\prime} = \gcd(a,c)$, $c^{\prime} = \gcd(a,b)$ and $d = a^{\prime} b^{\prime} c^{\prime}$. Define $\mathfrak{S}(a,b,c) = a^{\prime} \...
40
votes
0answers
1k views

How to find a total order with constrained comparisons

There are $25$ horses with different speeds. My goal is to rank all of them, by using only runs with $5$ horses, and taking partial rankings. How many runs do I need, at minimum, to complete my task? ...
38
votes
0answers
930 views

Limit associated with a recursion

If $z_n < 2y_n$ then $y_{n+1} = 4y_n - 2z_n$ $z_{n+1} = 2z_n + 3$ Else $y_{n+1} = 4y_n$ $z_{n+1} = 2 z_n - 1$ Consider the following limit: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{n}\left(z_{n+1}...
37
votes
0answers
550 views

Can Erdős-Turán $\frac{5}{8}$ theorem be generalised that way?

Suppose for an arbitrary group word $w$ ower the alphabet of $n$ symbols $\mathfrak{U_w}$ is a variety of all groups $G$, that satisfy an identity $\forall a_1, … , a_n \in G$ $w(a_1, … , a_n) = e$. ...
37
votes
1answer
1k views

Factorial of a matrix: what could be the use of it?

Recently on this site, the question was raised how we might define the factorial operation $\mathsf{A}!$ on a square matrix $\mathsf{A}$. The answer, perhaps unsurprisingly, involves the Gamma ...
36
votes
0answers
507 views

What is $\tau(A_n)$?

Suppose G is a finite group. Define $\tau(G)$ as the minimal number, such that $\forall X \subset G$ if $|X| > \tau(G)$, then $XXX = \langle X \rangle$. What is $\tau(A_n)$? Similar problems for ...
35
votes
0answers
1k views

Is there a “ping-pong lemma proof” that $\langle x \mapsto x+1,x \mapsto x^3 \rangle$ is a free group of rank 2?

Let $f,g\colon \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be the permutations defined by $f\colon x \mapsto x+1$ and $g\colon x \mapsto x^3$, or maybe even have $g\colon x \mapsto x^p$, $p$ an odd prime. In the book, ...
35
votes
0answers
766 views

Evaluating sums and integrals using Taylor's Theorem

Taylor's theorem states that $$f(x)-\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{f^{(k)}(a)}{k!}(x-a)^k = \int_a^x \frac{f^{(n+1)} (t)}{n!} (x - t)^n \, dt $$ We can use this to evaluate integrals. For example, consider $f(x)=...
34
votes
1answer
647 views

Hahn-Banach From Systems of Linear Equations

In this paper1 on the history of functional analysis, the author mentions the following example of an infinite system of linear equations in an infinite number of variables $c_i = A_{ij} x_j$: \begin{...
34
votes
1answer
2k views

$C^{k}$-manifolds: how and why?

First of all, I have a specific question. Suppose $M$ is an $m$-dimensional $C^k$-manifold, for $1 \leq k < \infty$. Is the tangent space to a point defined as the space of $C^k$ derivations on the ...
33
votes
0answers
973 views

Mathematics for the afterlife

Paul Erdős said this about the $3n + 1$ conjecture: Mathematics may not be ready for such problems. Similarly, there are parts of mathematics that I am not yet ready for. Some things, however, I ...
31
votes
0answers
423 views

Positive set theory, antifoundation, and the “co-Russell set”

Tl;dr version: are there "reasonable" theories which prove/disprove "the set of all sets containing themselves, contains itself"? Inspired by this question, I'd like to ask a question which has been ...
31
votes
2answers
561 views

Can $ f\colon \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $ \forall y \in \operatorname{im}(f)$, $f^{-1}(y) = \{a_y,b_y\} $ be continuous?

This is the problem we want to solve: Can $f\colon \mathbb{R}^k \to \mathbb{R}^n$ such that $ \forall y \in \operatorname{im}(f)$, $ f^{-1}(y) = \{a_y,b_y\}, a_y \neq b_y $ be continuous? ...
31
votes
0answers
908 views

Why do universal $\delta$-functors annihilate injectives?

Let $\mathcal{A}$ and $\mathcal{B}$ be abelian categories. Suppose $\mathcal{A}$ has enough injectives, and consider a universal (cohomological) $\delta$-functor $T^\bullet$ from $\mathcal{A}$ to $\...
30
votes
0answers
924 views

Why are functions with vanishing normal derivative dense in smooth functions?

Question Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold with piecewise smooth boundary. Why are smooth functions with vanishing normal derivative dense in $C^\infty(M)$ in the $H^1$ norm? Here I define $...
30
votes
0answers
572 views

Is there a proof of Bézout's theorem via residue theory?

Let's define intersection numbers as follows. Consider a collection $f_1,\dots, f_n$ of holomorphic functions on some neighborhood of zero in $\mathbb C^N$ cutting out divisors $D_1$, all of which ...
30
votes
1answer
983 views

The Modulus of all the roots of a Polynomial are equal to $1$

Suppose the real number $\lambda \in (0,1)$, and let $n$ be a positive integer. Prove that all roots of the polynomial $$f\left ( x \right )=\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{n}{k}\lambda^{k\left ( n-k \right )}x^{...
29
votes
0answers
925 views

Does the average primeness of natural numbers tend to zero?

Note 1: This questions requires some new definitions, namely "continuous primeness" which I have made. Everyone is welcome to improve the definition without altering the spirit of the question. Click ...
29
votes
0answers
534 views

$\forall n\in\mathbb N:n^x\in\mathbb Q$ implies $x\in\mathbb Z$ - elementary proof?

Consider the following two problems: Show that if for some $x\in\mathbb R$ and for each $n\in\mathbb N$ we have $n^x\in\mathbb N$, then $x\in\mathbb N$. Show that if for some $x\in\mathbb R$ ...

15 30 50 per page