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104 votes
9 answers
12k views

Congruence Arithmetic Laws, e.g. in divisibility by $7$ test

I have seen other criteria for divisibility by $7$. Criterion described below present in the book Handbook of Mathematics for IN Bronshtein (p. $323$) is interesting, but could not prove it. Let $n = (...
Mathsource's user avatar
  • 5,393
450 votes
24 answers
88k views

How can I evaluate $\sum_{n=0}^\infty(n+1)x^n$?

How can I evaluate $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{2n}{3^{n+1}}$$? I know the answer thanks to Wolfram Alpha, but I'm more concerned with how I can derive that answer. It cites tests to prove that it is ...
backus's user avatar
  • 4,715
10 votes
3 answers
8k views

Mod of numbers with large exponents [modular order reduction]

I've read about Fermat's little theorem and generally how congruence works. But I can't figure out how to work out these two: $13^{100} \bmod 7$ $7^{100} \bmod 13$ I've also heard of the Congruence ...
Roshnal's user avatar
  • 251
133 votes
12 answers
26k views

Modular exponentiation by hand ($a^b\bmod c$)

How do I efficiently compute $a^b\bmod c$: When $b$ is huge, for instance $5^{844325}\bmod 21$? When $b$ is less than $c$ but it would still be a lot of work to multiply $a$ by itself $b$ times, for ...
user7530's user avatar
  • 49.2k
552 votes
31 answers
228k views

How to prove that $\lim\limits_{x\to0}\frac{\sin x}x=1$?

How can one prove the statement $$\lim_{x\to 0}\frac{\sin x}x=1$$ without using the Taylor series of $\sin$, $\cos$ and $\tan$? Best would be a geometrical solution. This is homework. In my math ...
FUZxxl's user avatar
  • 9,277
193 votes
8 answers
98k views

How can we sum up $\sin$ and $\cos$ series when the angles are in arithmetic progression?

How can we sum up $\sin$ and $\cos$ series when the angles are in arithmetic progression? For example here is the sum of $\cos$ series: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\cos (a+k \cdot d) =\frac{\sin(n \times \frac{...
Quixotic's user avatar
  • 22.4k
1290 votes
27 answers
143k views

Is $\frac{\textrm{d}y}{\textrm{d}x}$ not a ratio?

In the book Thomas's Calculus (11th edition) it is mentioned (Section 3.8 pg 225) that the derivative $\frac{\textrm{d}y}{\textrm{d}x}$ is not a ratio. Couldn't it be interpreted as a ratio, because ...
BBSysDyn's user avatar
  • 16.1k
197 votes
14 answers
19k views

Why $\sqrt{-1 \cdot {-1}} \neq \sqrt{-1}^2$?

I know there must be something unmathematical in the following but I don't know where it is: \begin{align} \sqrt{-1} &= i \\\\\ \frac1{\sqrt{-1}} &= \frac1i \\\\ \frac{\sqrt1}{\sqrt{-1}} &...
Wilhelm's user avatar
  • 2,173
390 votes
34 answers
139k views

If $AB = I$ then $BA = I$

If $A$ and $B$ are square matrices such that $AB = I$, where $I$ is the identity matrix, show that $BA = I$. I do not understand anything more than the following. Elementary row operations. Linear ...
Dilawar's user avatar
  • 6,115
23 votes
5 answers
10k views

Solving linear congruences by hand: modular fractions and inverses

When I am faced with a simple linear congruence such as $$9x \equiv 7 \pmod{13}$$ and I am working without any calculating aid handy, I tend to do something like the following: "Notice" that adding $...
Old John's user avatar
  • 19.5k
848 votes
54 answers
140k views

Different ways to prove $\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k^2}=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$ (the Basel problem)

As I have heard people did not trust Euler when he first discovered the formula (solution of the Basel problem) $$\zeta(2)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k^2}=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$$ However, Euler was Euler ...
175 votes
10 answers
52k views

Prove that $\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$

For all $a, m, n \in \mathbb{Z}^+$, $$\gcd(a^n - 1, a^m - 1) = a^{\gcd(n, m)} - 1$$
user avatar
31 votes
5 answers
57k views

Counting bounded integer solutions to $\sum_ia_ix_i\leqq n$

I want to find the number of nonnegative integer solutions to $$x_1+x_2+x_3+x_4=22$$ which is also the number of combinations with replacement of $22$ items in $4$ types. How do I apply stars and bars ...
Partly Putrid Pile of Pus's user avatar
356 votes
31 answers
60k views

Is it true that $0.999999999\ldots=1$?

I'm told by smart people that $$0.999999999\ldots=1$$ and I believe them, but is there a proof that explains why this is?
87 votes
5 answers
34k views

How to use the Extended Euclidean Algorithm manually?

I've only found a recursive algorithm of the extended Euclidean algorithm. I'd like to know how to use it by hand. Any idea?
Andrew's user avatar
  • 2,297
127 votes
3 answers
10k views

Are all limits solvable without L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion

Is it always possible to find the limit of a function without using L'Hôpital Rule or Series Expansion? For example, $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\tan x-x}{x^3}$$ $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{\sin x-x}{x^3}$$ $$\...
lab bhattacharjee's user avatar
76 votes
20 answers
23k views

Proof of the hockey stick/Zhu Shijie identity $\sum\limits_{t=0}^n \binom tk = \binom{n+1}{k+1}$

After reading this question, the most popular answer use the identity $$\sum_{t=0}^n \binom{t}{k} = \binom{n+1}{k+1},$$ or, what is equivalent, $$\sum_{t=k}^n \binom{t}{k} = \binom{n+1}{k+1}.$$ What's ...
hlapointe's user avatar
  • 1,610
46 votes
8 answers
24k views

Why $\gcd(b,qb+r)=\gcd(b,r),\,$ so $\,\gcd(b,a) = \gcd(b,a\bmod b)$

Given: $a = qb + r$. Then it holds that $\gcd(a,b)=\gcd(b,r)$. That doesn't sound logical to me. Why is this so? Addendum by LePressentiment on 11/29/2013: (in the interest of http://meta.math....
www.data-blogger.com's user avatar
155 votes
1 answer
33k views

Overview of basic facts about Cauchy functional equation

The Cauchy functional equation asks about functions $f \colon \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ such that $$f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y).$$ It is a very well-known functional equation, which appears in various areas of ...
59 votes
14 answers
24k views

How to prove that $\log(x)<x$ when $x>1$? [duplicate]

It's very basic but I'm having trouble to find a way to prove this inequality $\log(x)<x$ when $x>1$ ($\log(x)$ is the natural logarithm) I can think about the two graphs but I can't find ...
Gianolepo's user avatar
  • 2,487
85 votes
5 answers
23k views

Limit of the nested radical $x_{n+1} = \sqrt{c+x_n}$

(Fitzpatrick Advanced Calculus 2e, Sec. 2.4 #12) For $c \gt 0$, consider the quadratic equation $x^2 - x - c = 0, x > 0$. Define the sequence $\{x_n\}$ recursively by fixing $|x_1| \lt c$ and then, ...
cnuulhu's user avatar
  • 995
177 votes
14 answers
46k views

How to prove: if $a,b \in \mathbb N$, then $a^{1/b}$ is an integer or an irrational number?

It is well known that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational, and by modifying the proof (replacing even with divisible by $3$), one can prove that $\sqrt{3}$ is irrational, as well. On the other hand, clearly $\...
user avatar
456 votes
18 answers
64k views

To sum $1+2+3+\cdots$ to $-\frac1{12}$

$$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac1{n^s}$$ only converges to $\zeta(s)$ if $\text{Re}(s)>1$. Why should analytically continuing to $\zeta(-1)$ give the right answer?
user avatar
73 votes
2 answers
12k views

Determinant of a rank $1$ update of a scalar matrix, or characteristic polynomial of a rank $1$ matrix

This question aims to create an "abstract duplicate" of numerous questions that ask about determinants of specific matrices (I may have missed a few): Characteristic polynomial of a matrix ...
Marc van Leeuwen's user avatar
891 votes
22 answers
114k views

The staircase paradox, or why $\pi\ne4$

What is wrong with this proof? Is $\pi=4?$
Pratik Deoghare's user avatar
115 votes
11 answers
10k views

Closed form for $ \int_0^\infty {\frac{{{x^n}}}{{1 + {x^m}}}dx }$

I've been looking at $$\int\limits_0^\infty {\frac{{{x^n}}}{{1 + {x^m}}}dx }$$ It seems that it always evaluates in terms of $\sin X$ and $\pi$, where $X$ is to be determined. For example: $$\...
Pedro's user avatar
  • 122k
135 votes
7 answers
100k views

Values of $\sum_{n=0}^\infty x^n$ and $\sum_{n=0}^N x^n$

Why does the following hold: \begin{equation*} \displaystyle \sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty} 0.7^n=\frac{1}{1-0.7} = 10/3\quad ? \end{equation*} Can we generalize the above to $\displaystyle \sum_{n=...
193 votes
9 answers
65k views

How to define a bijection between $(0,1)$ and $(0,1]$?

How to define a bijection between $(0,1)$ and $(0,1]$? Or any other open and closed intervals? If the intervals are both open like $(-1,2)\text{ and }(-5,4)$ I do a cheap trick (don't know if that'...
user1411893's user avatar
  • 2,153
373 votes
23 answers
52k views

Zero to the zero power – is $0^0=1$?

Could someone provide me with a good explanation of why $0^0=1$? My train of thought: $$x>0\\ 0^x=0^{x-0}=\frac{0^x}{0^0}$$ so $$0^0=\frac{0^x}{0^x}=\,?$$ Possible answers: $0^0\cdot0^x=1\cdot0^0$,...
Stas's user avatar
  • 3,989
274 votes
32 answers
132k views

Evaluating the integral $\int_0^\infty \frac{\sin x} x \,\mathrm dx = \frac \pi 2$?

A famous exercise which one encounters while doing Complex Analysis (Residue theory) is to prove that the given integral: $$\int\limits_0^\infty \frac{\sin x} x \,\mathrm dx = \frac \pi 2$$ Well, can ...
user avatar
356 votes
7 answers
51k views

How can you prove that a function has no closed form integral?

In the past, I've come across statements along the lines of "function $f(x)$ has no closed form integral", which I assume means that there is no combination of the operations: addition/...
Simon Nickerson's user avatar
68 votes
16 answers
53k views

Proving $1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$ using induction

How can I prove that $$1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$$ for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$? I am looking for a proof using mathematical induction. Thanks
133 votes
3 answers
137k views

Expected time to roll all $1$ through $6$ on a die

What is the average number of times it would it take to roll a fair $6$-sided die and get all numbers on the die? The order in which the numbers appear does not matter. I had this questions explained ...
eternalmatt's user avatar
  • 1,495
217 votes
21 answers
156k views

Evaluation of Gaussian integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{-x^2} dx$

How to prove $$\int_{0}^{\infty} \mathrm{e}^{-x^2}\, dx = \frac{\sqrt \pi}{2}$$
Jichao's user avatar
  • 8,008
141 votes
36 answers
306k views

Proof that $1+2+3+4+\cdots+n = \frac{n\times(n+1)}2$

Why is $1+2+3+4+\ldots+n = \dfrac{n\times(n+1)}2$ $\space$ ?
b1_'s user avatar
  • 1,585
80 votes
5 answers
64k views

How to take the gradient of the quadratic form?

It's stated that the gradient of: $$\frac{1}{2}x^TAx - b^Tx +c$$ is $$\frac{1}{2}A^Tx + \frac{1}{2}Ax - b$$ How do you grind out this equation? Or specifically, how do you get from $x^TAx$ to $A^...
victor's user avatar
  • 923
12 votes
3 answers
3k views

mod Distributive Law, factoring $\!\!\bmod\!\!:$ $\ ab\bmod ac = a(b\bmod c)$

I stumbled across this problem Find $\,10^{\large 5^{102}}$ modulo $35$, i.e. the remainder left after it is divided by $35$ Beginning, we try to find a simplification for $10$ to get: $$10 \equiv 3 ...
q.Then's user avatar
  • 3,080
110 votes
15 answers
98k views

How to prove that exponential grows faster than polynomial?

In other words, how to prove: For all real constants $a$ and $b$ such that $a > 1$, $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n^b}{a^n} = 0$$ I know the definition of limit but I feel that it's not enough to ...
faceclean's user avatar
  • 7,159
3 votes
2 answers
2k views

Using gcd Bezout identity to solve linear Diophantine equations and congruences, and compute modular inverses and fractions

Isn't finding the inverse of $a$, that is, $a'$ in $aa'\equiv1\pmod{m}$ equivalent to solving the diophantine equation $aa'-mb=1$, where the unknowns are $a'$ and $b$? I have seem some answers on this ...
MrAP's user avatar
  • 2,993
56 votes
3 answers
63k views

Explain why $E(X) = \int_0^\infty (1-F_X (t)) \, dt$ for every nonnegative random variable $X$

Let $X$ be a non-negative random variable and $F_{X}$ the corresponding CDF. Show, $$E(X) = \int_0^\infty (1-F_X (t)) \, dt$$ when $X$ has : a) a discrete distribution, b) a continuous ...
Jon Gan's user avatar
  • 1,501
152 votes
33 answers
86k views

Sum of First $n$ Squares Equals $\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$

I am just starting into calculus and I have a question about the following statement I encountered while learning about definite integrals: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I really ...
Nathan Osman's user avatar
  • 1,873
183 votes
17 answers
167k views

How to prove Euler's formula: $e^{i\varphi}=\cos(\varphi) +i\sin(\varphi)$?

Could you provide a proof of Euler's formula: $e^{i\varphi}=\cos(\varphi) +i\sin(\varphi)$?
Jichao's user avatar
  • 8,008
159 votes
2 answers
51k views

Examples of bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

Could any one give an example of a bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$? Thank you.
Myshkin's user avatar
  • 35.9k
91 votes
15 answers
103k views

Prove that $\lim \limits_{n \to \infty} \frac{x^n}{n!} = 0$, $x \in \Bbb R$.

Why is $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{2^n}{n!}=0\text{ ?}$$ Can we generalize it to any exponent $x \in \Bbb R$? This is to say, is $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{x^n}{n!}=0\text{ ?}$$ This is being ...
Matt Nashra's user avatar
  • 1,255
263 votes
9 answers
34k views

Evaluating $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} e^{-n} \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$

I'm supposed to calculate: $$\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n} \sum_{k=0}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$$ By using WolframAlpha, I might guess that the limit is $\frac{1}{2}$, which is a pretty interesting and nice ...
user 1591719's user avatar
  • 44.2k
133 votes
24 answers
30k views

In classical logic, why is $(p\Rightarrow q)$ True if both $p$ and $q$ are False?

I am studying entailment in classical first-order logic. The Truth Table we have been presented with for the statement $(p \Rightarrow q)\;$ (a.k.a. '$p$ implies $q$') is: $$\begin{array}{|c|c|c|} \...
Ethan's user avatar
  • 1,449
7 votes
4 answers
12k views

Prove that $(ma, mb) = |m|(a, b)\ $ [GCD & LCM Distributive Law]

I'm trying to prove that $(ma, mb) = $|$m$|$(a, b)$ , where $(ma, mb)$ is the greatest common divisor between $ma$ and $mb$. My thoughts: If $(ma, mb) = d$ , then $d$|$ma$ and $d$|$mb$ → $d$|$max + ...
Lstoi's user avatar
  • 199
5 votes
2 answers
5k views

Solving $\ge 2$ congruences by CRT = Chinese Remainder Theorem

How do I get the solution given by CRT to match another solution, e.g. the least positive? For example say I have X = 1234. I choose ...
srcspider's user avatar
  • 161
186 votes
2 answers
118k views

Discontinuous derivative. [duplicate]

Could someone give an example of a ‘very’ discontinuous derivative? I myself can only come up with examples where the derivative is discontinuous at only one point. I am assuming the function is real-...
user58273's user avatar
  • 1,977
30 votes
3 answers
12k views

Extended stars-and-bars problem(where the upper limit of the variable is bounded)

The problem of counting the solutions $(a_1,a_2,\ldots,a_n)$ with integer $a_i\geq0$ for $i\in\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$ such that $$a_1+a_2+a_3+\ldots+a_n=N$$ can be solved with a stars-and-bars argument. ...
Niaz Mohammad Khan's user avatar

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