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Questions tagged [tetration]

Tetration is iterated exponentiation, just as exponentiation is iterated multiplication. It is the fourth hyperoperation and often produces power towers that evaluate to very large numbers.

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Peter Walker's $C^{\infty}$ conjectured nowhere analytic slog

Consider the function $h(x)$ which is conjectured to be $c^\infty$ nowhere analytic, and can be used to generate what we call the base change slog, which is the inverse of the basechange sexp. This ...
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123 views

Is $\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\ldots}}}$ rational, algebraic irrational, or transcendental?

Let x be the expression. Assume x is algebraic irrational. By Gelfond-Schneider Theorem, $x^x$, which is also $x$, is transcendental, a contradiction. But I have no idea how to do the rest.
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Complete monotonicity of a sequence related to tetration

Let $\Delta$ denote the forward difference operator on a sequence: $$\Delta s_n = s_{n+1} - s_n,$$ and $\Delta^m$ denote the forward difference of the order $m$: $$\Delta^0 s_n = s_n, \quad \Delta^{m+...
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174 views

A limit related to tetration growth rate

Assume $a\in\mathbb R,\,e^{-e}<a<e^{1/e}$ and $n\in\mathbb N$. Let ${^n a}$ denote tetration: $${^0a}=1,\quad{^{(n+1)}a}=a^{\left({^n a}\right)}.\tag1$$ It is well known that under these ...
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1answer
98 views

Is there a mathematical term, practical application, or area of math that covers a function raised to itself?

Some abstract examples would be: $f(x)^{f(x)}$ or $f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)...}}$ Actual equations I've attempted to look at can be viewed here on desmos.com There seems to be a pattern of common convergence, ...
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159 views

Solving for best fit value $C$ in $\sqrt {Exp_a^{[1/2]} (x) \cdot Exp_b^{[1/2]} (x )}$ ~~ $ Exp_C^{[1/2]} (x).$

Let $Exp_t^{[y]} (x) $ denote the $y$ th iteration of the exponential function with base $t$ : $t^x.$ For example $Exp_t^{[1]} (x) = t^x. $ Let ~~ denote best fit. Now as $x$ Goes to positive ...
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161 views

What is the value of $i^{i^{i^\ldots}}$? [closed]

What is the value of $i^{i^{i^\ldots}}$? My effort is the following: If $z, \alpha \in \mathbb{C}$ with $z \neq 0$ then we can write $z^{\alpha}=e^{\alpha \log z} = e^{\alpha [ \log |z|+i \text{ Arg ...
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How to solve this tetration equation $\;^n 2 = \;^2 n $?

How would one find all real solutions to the following equation: $\qquad$ $n^n = 2^{2^{2^{2^{\dots^2}}}} $(where the number of $2$s is equal to $n$) generalizing to $n$ being a real value. In ...
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Generalizing an iterative logarithm integral.

First, some notation: $f^{\star0}(x)=x$ $f^{\star k}(x)=f\left(f^{\star k-1}(x)\right)$ So that for any integer $k$, $\log^{\star k}(x)=\underbrace{\log(\log(\dots(\log}_k(x))\dots))$. I then came ...
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How fast do iterated exponentiation converge?

Iterated exponentiation is defined by $$x \mapsto x^{x^{x^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot}}}}}$$ or more conveniently, we denote by $^rx$ the expression $\underbrace{x^{x^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{x}}}}}}_{r \text{ ...
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Can we use trigonometric idendities to calculate $\cos(x)$ and $\sin(x)$ for extremely large $x$?

If we want to calculate $\sin(x)$ and $\cos(x)$ for very large $x$ , lets say $10^5$ , the usual way is to reduce the number $x$ modulo $2\pi$. If the number is a large power of a small number, for ...
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359 views

What is the maximum convergent $x$ in the power tower $x^{x^{x^{x\cdots}}}$?

In the power tower $x^{x^{x^{x\cdots}}}$ where there is an infinite stack of $x$'s, what is the maximum convergent number? I know the answer by playing with the form $x^y=y$ and using Mathematica, but ...
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1answer
130 views

The one value of super square root function

A function can not have more than one value. i.e. we only take the positive value for $y$ where $y=\sqrt 4$ But what about the super square root?, if both value are positive real values like: $$y=\...
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199 views

Prove if $t = W(-\log z)$, $|t| = 1$, and $t^n \ne 1$ than $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ does not converge

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ and let $W$ be the Lambert W function. I am trying to prove that: If $t = W(-\log z)$, $|t| = 1$, and $t^n \ne 1$ for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$ (ie, $t$ is not a root of unity) ...
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379 views

Infinite tetration of $-2.5$

Let $a_n$ be the sequence $z, z^z, z^{z^z} ...$ for $z \in \mathbb{C}$. This is sometimes called the iterated exponential with base $z$. I am investigating the above sequence for $z = -2.5$. After ...
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1answer
197 views

Inverse operation of tetration and how it is computed?

If $c=a+b$, then $a=c-b$ and $b=c-a$. If $c=a\times b$, then $a=\frac{c}{b}$ and $b=\frac{c}{a}$. If $c=a^b$, then $a = \sqrt [b]{c} =c^{\frac{1}{b}}$ and $b=log_ac$. What are the analogous inverse ...
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What is this operator called?

If $x \cdot 2 = x + x$ and $x \cdot 3 = x + x + x$ and $x^2 = x \cdot x$ and $x^3 = x \cdot x \cdot x$ Is there an operator $\oplus$ such that: $x \oplus 2 = x^x$ and $x \oplus 3 = {x^{x^x}}$? ...
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100 views

Solve $(x+a)^{1/x} = b$ for $x$

Solve $(x+a)^{1/x} = b$ , for $x$ where $a$ & $b$ are real constant. Do not use Lambert W-function in solution. Instead of using Lambert W-function, there are solution steps look like "...
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86 views

$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}}$ changing $e$ with $10$

From Numberphile $$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}}$$ changing $e$ with $10$, is there a way to change only the top most number while keeping all other numbers 10? i.e what is x in : $$e^{e^{10^{10^{2.8}}}} = ...
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1answer
58 views

separate $a$ & $b$ in $ssrt(a^a*b^b)$ [closed]

It is already known that $ssrt(a^a*b^b)$ does not equal $ssrt(a^a)*ssrt(b^b) = a*b$ Is there any other method to separate $a$ and $b$? ****Please note that $ssrt$ is "super square root". and my ...
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1answer
176 views

If $|t| = |W(-\ln z)| = 1$ and $t^n =1$ then $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ is convergent

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ and $W$ be the Lambert W function. In this post I was told if $|t| = |W(-\ln z)| = 1$ and $t^n =1$ for some $n \in \mathbb{N}$ than the iterated exponential $z^{z^{z^{...}}}$ ...
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1answer
1k views

Does an iterated exponential $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ always have a finite period

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}.$ Let $t = W(-\ln z)$ where $W$ is the Lambert W Function. Define the sequence $a_n$ by $a_0 = z$ and $a_{n+1} = z^{a_n}$ for $n \geq 1$, that is to say $a_n$ is the sequence $...
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1answer
136 views

How can I show, that $N\uparrow\uparrow N$ is not “much larger” than $N$ for very large $N\ $?

Here : https://sites.google.com/site/largenumbers/home/3-2/knuth Saibian demonstrates that for very large numbers $N$, $N\uparrow\uparrow N$ is only "slightly larger" than $N$. I would like to ...
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1answer
125 views

How to evaluate or approximate this kind of recursion: $a(n+1) = m \cdot \exp\left(\frac{-K \cdot (m - a(n))}{m}\right),\ n \geq 1$?

Edit: In the original post, I put the function $$a(n+1) = m \cdot \exp(-K \cdot a(n) / m),\ n \geq 2$$ which is not the function I wanted to study. The correct one is the one given below I came up ...
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122 views

Tetration of a number giving a complex number

Giving this power equation: $$S=\lim_{n\to\infty} {^n}x=-i$$ where the symbol $^nx$ means the tetration operator, we can write in a form not formally correct: $${\ ^{n}x = \ \atop {\ }} {{\underbrace{...
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3answers
176 views

The smallest number $m$, such that $m\uparrow \uparrow (n+1)>n\uparrow\uparrow n$

A natural number $n\ge 3$ is given. Denote $a\uparrow\uparrow b$ to be a power tower of $b$ $a's$. Let $m$ be the smallest natural number , such that $m\uparrow\uparrow(n+1) > n\uparrow\uparrow n$ ...
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106 views

Equality of power towers : $a\uparrow\uparrow m=b\uparrow \uparrow n$

Suppose, $a,m,b,n$ are natural numbers greater than $1$. If we have $$a\uparrow\uparrow m=b\uparrow\uparrow n$$ can we conclude $a=b$ and $m=n$ ? $a\uparrow \uparrow m$ is a powertower of $m$ $a's$ ...
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234 views

Tetration and Fractions

Recently I discovered Tetration, and was wondering about having tetration with fractional "tetronents", take the example $$^{7/2}3\;\Bbb{or}\;3\uparrow\uparrow{\frac72}$$Initially it seems difficult ...
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1answer
207 views

What is a puiseux series and what is wolfram-alpha doing with this antiderivative?

I asked wolfram alpha to compute the antiderivative of the function $x^x$. It gave me some really large confusing polynomial-esque thing called a puiseux series. However, from what I can gather on the ...
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Convergence properties of $z^{z^{z^{…}}}$ and is it “chaotic”

$\DeclareMathOperator{\Arg}{Arg}$ Let $z \in \mathbb{C}.$ Let $b = W(-\ln z)$ where $W$ is the Lambert W Function. Define the sequence $a_n$ by $a_0 = z$ and $a_{n+1} = {a_0}^{a_n}$ for $n \geq 1$, ...
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0answers
109 views

Last three digits of tetration

Find the last three digits of the number: $7^{7^{7^7...}}$ where there are 1001 sevens. I know how to do it for when there are 4 and 5 sevens. I get an answer of 343. But how do I find it for ...
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117 views

Sum of the reciprocal of tetration?

Let $$f(x)=\sum^\infty_{n=1}\frac{1}{{}^xn}$$ where ${}^xn$ is n tetrated to the xth. What are f(2) and f(3), and could you please also explain how you reached these answers?
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1answer
86 views

Solving $x^{1/x}=y^{1/y}$ iteratively by power towers, convergence

Suppose we have no idea that $x^{1/x}=\exp \left( \frac{1}{x} \ln x \right)$ or don't know anything about exponents and logarithms. But we can certainly compute roots, for example by this method. ...
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96 views

Showing that a Hermitian matrix can have eigenvalues that correspond to arbitrary numbers does not prove the Hilbert-Polya conjecture, does it?

I read in Wikipedia about the Hilbert-Polya conjecture that: " ...a physical reason that the Riemann hypothesis should be true, and suggested that this would be the case if the imaginary parts $...
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2answers
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How fast does this sequence grow?

I have the following recursive definition of a sequence of numbers: $$a_{n+1}=(a_n)^{(a_{n-1})}$$ And $a_0=a_1=2$. The first few terms are: $$a_2=4$$ $$a_3=16$$ $$a_4=65536$$ $$a_5=1.1579209 \...
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Derivation of tetration by iteration

I was screwing around a bit differentiating tetrations and was trying to write some rules for them. I came up with this recursive definition: $$ \frac{d\ ^nt}{dt} =\ ^nt \cdot log(t)\frac{d\ ^{n-1}t}{...
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3answers
632 views

Proving that if $|W(-\ln z)| < 1$ then $z^{z^{z^{z^…}}}$ is convergent

Let $z \in \mathbb{C}$ and let $W$ be the Lambert $W$ function. In this post it is shown that if $|W(-\ln z)| > 1$ then the infinite power tower $z^{z^{z^{z^...}}}$ does not converge, that is $|W(-\...
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1answer
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Why is exponentiation right associative? [duplicate]

From Wikipedia: In order to reflect normal usage, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operators are usually left-associative while an exponentiation operator (if present) is ...
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1answer
381 views

How would you define non-integer tetration? [duplicate]

Tetration is defined for all $n\in \Bbb{N}$ by $$ {^1}a = a \\ {^{n+1}}a = a^{\left({^n}a\right)} $$ Thus ${^3}a$ means $a^{a^a}$. Here $a$ could be any real (or indeed even complex) value, but only ...
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2answers
226 views

Do we know the value of $3 \uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3$

I was studying Graham's number and before we can even start calculating $g_1$ which is: $g_1 = 3\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow\uparrow 3$, I was wondering if we even have the actual value of: $3 \...
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2answers
485 views

Convergence or divergence of infinite power towers of complex numbers $z^{z^{z^{z{…}}}}$

Let $s$ be any complex number, $t = e^s$ and $z = t^{1/t}$. Define the sequence $(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ by $a_0 = z $ and $a_{n+1} = z^{a_n} $ for $n \geq 0$, that is to say $a_n$ is the sequence $z$...
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2answers
444 views

How do I write Grahams number

I found that graham's number is :enter image description here So, can we say that it is equal to $3^x$ with $x$ is a power tower of 63 3's?
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1answer
97 views

Question concerning comparison of different tetration functions

Let $a_{1}=2$, $a_{n+1}=2^{a_{n}}$ for $n \geq 1$ Let $b_{1}=3$, $b_{n+1}=3^{b_{n}}$ for $n \geq 1$ Is is true that $a_{n+2}>b_{n}$ for all $n \geq 1$? If so, is the proof elementary? (Use only ...
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391 views

Integrate $x$ to the power $x$… to the power $x$… infinitely

This came across my mind, integrating $x$ to the power $x$ infinitely, I couldn't find anything on it. $$\Large \int x^{x^{x^{x\,\cdots}}} \, dx$$ How would you go about this?
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91 views

What the minimum of infinite tetration divided by $\sqrt{x}$?

For some values of $x$ the limit of infinite tetration converges. For example when $x=\sqrt{2}$ this is fixed point $$\lim_{n\rightarrow \infty} \sqrt{2} \uparrow \uparrow n = \sqrt{2}^{\sqrt{2}^{\...
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4answers
1k views

An obvious pattern to $i\uparrow\uparrow n$ that is eluding us all?

Start with $i=\sqrt{-1}$. This will be $a_1$. $a_2$ will be $i^i$. $a_3$ will be $i^{i^{i}}$. $\vdots$ etc. In Knuth up-arrow notation: $$a_n=i\uparrow\uparrow n$$ And, amazingly, you can ...
3
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3answers
192 views

Infinite exponentials

We can read a lot of about convergence of series or Infinite products. E.g. for series. Following series $$\sum_{i=1}^\infty a_i$$ is convergent when $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}a_n=0$$ and D'...
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1answer
581 views

Infinite tetration of $z$ where $z=i^i$

1) Proof that $z=i^i$ is a real number Euler's identity; $$e^{i\pi} + 1 = 0$$ can be manipulated in order to obtain the result: $$e^{i\pi} = -1$$ Raising both sides of the equality to the power ...
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0answers
68 views

Does $y=\lim_{n\to\infty}x\uparrow\uparrow n-f(x,n)$ have a root at $2$?

While messing around on Desmos calculator, I found an interesting factorial/tetration function, where we are using Knuth arrow notation. $$y=\lim_{n\to\infty}x\uparrow\uparrow n-f(x,n)\\f(x,n)=x\...
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3answers
100 views

Finding the function that would describe this:

I'm not going to go into detail why I am interested in the next iteration of these functions, but here they are: 1: 6/(x+1) 2: 8/(2^x) 3: 10/(?) The question is, which one is next? I will say that ...