# Questions tagged [tetration]

Tetration is iterated exponentiation, just as exponentiation is iterated multiplication. It is the fourth hyperoperation and often produces power towers that evaluate to very large numbers.

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### How to define $A\uparrow B$ with a universal property as well as $A\oplus B$, $A\times B$, $A^B$ in category theory?

In category theory there are definitions for $A\oplus B$, $A\times B$ and $A^B$ via universal properties. I wonder if it is possible to isolate a particular universal property to represent the ...
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### A new interesting pattern to $i↑↑n$ that looks cool (and $z↑↑x$ for $z\in\mathbb C,x\in\mathbb R$)

Many of you may recall "An obvious pattern to $i↑↑n$ that is eluding us all?", an old question of mine, and just recently, I saw this new question that poses a simple extension to tetration at non-...
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### Explain $x^{x^{x^{{\cdots}}}} = \,\,3$

$$x^{x^{x^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot}}}}} =\quad 2$$ This equation has the answer $\sqrt{2}$ by taking $\log$ to both side. This answer is correct because I'd proved it by computing the equation repeatedly ...
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### Calculating 7^7^7^7^7^7^7 mod 100

What is $$\large 7^{7^{7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}}} \pmod{100}$$ I'm not much of a number theorist and I saw this mentioned on the internet somewhere. Should be doable by hand.
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### Prime factor of $2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4$

I checked the prime factors of $$2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4 = 2^{2^{2^2}} + 3^{3^{3^3}}$$ with trial division and found non below $8*10^9$ Nevertheless, the given number has still ...
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### Solutions of $a^{a^x}=x$ for fixed $a>0$

I am interested in the equation $a^{a^x}=x$ for some fixed $a>0$. Is there some way to rearrange for $x$ or solve otherwise? What about the nature of the solutions? For which fixed $a>0$ are ...
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### Ordinal tetration: The issue of ${}^{\epsilon_0}\omega$

So in the past few months when trying to learn about the properties of the fixed points in ordinals as I move from $0$ to $\epsilon_{\epsilon_0}$ I noticed when moving from $\epsilon_n$ to the next ...
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### A limit related to super-root (tetration inverse).

Recall that tetration ${^n}x$ for $n\in\mathbb N$ is defined recursively: ${^1}x=x,\,{^{n+1}}x=x^{({^n}x)}$. Its inverse function with respect to $x$ is called super-root and denoted $\sqrt[n]y_s$ (...
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### Derivative of $x^{x^{\cdot^{\cdot}}}$?

The infinite tetration is defined as $$f(x)=x^{x^{\cdot^{\cdot}}}$$ This function is defined for $e^{-e} \leq x \leq e^{e-1}$. (Wikipedia image) Can one determine the derivative of this function?
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### Last digits of power towers $7$, $7^7$, $7^{7^7}$, $7^{7^{7^7}}$, … don't change, and generalisation

While playing around with Wolfram Alpha, I noticed that the last four digits of $7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}, 7^{7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}},$ and $7^{7^{7^{7^{7^{7^7}}}}}$were all $2343$. In fact, the number of sevens did ...
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### Does infinite tetration of negative numbers converge for any value other than -1?

Okay, so I know that for positive values, $^{\infty}x$ converges to $-\frac{W(-\ln x)}{\ln x}$ for $e^{-e}\le x \le e^{\frac1e}$. Above that, it diverges. For positive values less than $e^{-e}$, any ...
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### Solutions of $f(f(z)) = e^z$

It is my impression that if we find a function f(z) that satisfies $$f(f(z)) = e^z$$ there is only one point z that satisfies the relation. This dawned on me when I noticed that the pesky z that ...
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### Show that the iterated $\ln^{[n]}$ of tetration(x,n) is nowhere analytic

$$f(x) = \lim_{n\to \infty} \ln^{[n]} x \uparrow\uparrow n$$ The conjecture is that $f(x)$ is monotonic and infinitely differentiable at the real axis, but nowhere analytic; because at each point on ...
### What is the maximum convergent $x$ in the power tower $x^{x^{x^{x\cdots}}}$?
In the power tower $x^{x^{x^{x\cdots}}}$ where there is an infinite stack of $x$'s, what is the maximum convergent number? I know the answer by playing with the form $x^y=y$ and using Mathematica, but ...