# Questions tagged [sums-of-squares]

For questions concerning various representation of integers as sums of squares, which are studied in number theory.

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### Let a and b be natural numbers such that $2a - b, a - 2b$ and $a + b$ are all distinct squares. What is the smallest possible value of $b$?

Let a and b be natural numbers such that $2a - b, a - 2b$ and $a + b$ are all distinct squares. What is the smallest possible value of $b$? Let, $2a-b=k^2, a-2b=p^2, a+b=q^2$. $k^2=p^2+q^2$ after ...
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### Primes of the form $a^2+b^2+c^2$, $0<a<b<c$

Are there results showing which prime numbers that can be expressed as the sum of three different integers greater than zero?
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### Sum of harmonic numbers $H_{n+k}$

I'm trying to take that sum: $$\sum_{k=1}^n H_{n+k}$$ So I transformed this sum to such: $\sum_{i=1}^n iH_{2n+1-i}$, unfortunately i can't make this sum out :( Hope You can help me, Thanks for ...
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### Finding an equivalence classes for the relation $(x_1,y_1)\sim(x_2,y_2)\ \iff\ x_1^2+y_1^2=x_2^2+y_2^2$.

Let R be the relation defined on the set of integer pairs by $(x_1,y_1)R(x_2,y_2)$ when $x_{1}^{2}$ + $y_{1}^{2}$ = $x_{2}^{2}$ + $y_{2}^{2}$. Prove that R is an equivalence relation and determine ...
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### A conjecture about an unlimited path

Conjecture: For all primes of the form $a^2+b^2$, there are natural numbers $s,t,u,v$ such that $\quad s^2+t^2,u^2+v^2$ are primes $\quad a+b=s+t$ $\quad u+v=s+t+2$ $\quad |s-u|+|t-v|=2$ This ...
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### Exploiting a Diophantine approximation of $\pi^4$ into giving a series of rationals for $\pi^4$

A note about this question: The original question asked seems likely impossible so I am really asking if we can exploit the technique below into giving us a 'nice' form for $\pi^4$. By nice form I ...
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### Can the sum of two squares be used to factor large numbers?

The method described below is different from Euler sum of two squares factorization method. The method below does not require 2 sum of two squares representations to factor a number. This post was ...
### Primality test using the sum of 2 squares representation of a prime $p^2= a^2+b^2$
We have seen that the sum of two squares (2 sq rep) of an integer $N^2$ can be used to factor $N$. Can the sum of two squares be used to factor large numbers? Here we use the same method to show ...
### How to prove that all primes of the form $4k+1$ can be represented by the sum of two squares in only one way regardless of the order?
I am reading a book about Number Theory as a new learner. The book has proved that all primes of the form $4k+1$ can be represented by the sum of two squares. This question is given as exercise and ...