Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 175 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [summation]

Questions about evaluating summations, especially finite summations. For infinite series, please consider the (sequences-and-series) tag instead.

131
votes
5answers
43k views

How can we sum up $\sin$ and $\cos$ series when the angles are in arithmetic progression?

How can we sum up $\sin$ and $\cos$ series when the angles are in arithmetic progression? For example here is the sum of $\cos$ series: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n-1}\cos (a+k \cdot d) =\frac{\sin(n \times \frac{...
58
votes
12answers
33k views

Proving $1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$ using induction

How can I prove that $$1^3+ 2^3 + \cdots + n^3 = \left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2}\right)^2$$ for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$? I am looking for a proof using mathematical induction. Thanks
112
votes
5answers
29k views

Value of $\sum\limits_n x^n$

Why does the following hold: \begin{equation*} \displaystyle \sum\limits_{n=0}^{\infty} 0.7^n=\frac{1}{1-0.7} = 10/3 ? \end{equation*} Can we generalize the above to $\displaystyle \sum_{n=0}^{\...
83
votes
30answers
173k views

Proof for formula for sum of sequence $1+2+3+\ldots+n$?

Apparently $1+2+3+4+\ldots+n = \dfrac{n\times(n+1)}2$. How? What's the proof? Or maybe it is self apparent just looking at the above? PS: This problem is know as "The sum of the first $n$ positive ...
45
votes
13answers
8k views

Proof of the Hockey-Stick Identity: $\sum\limits_{t=0}^n \binom tk = \binom{n+1}{k+1}$

After reading this question, the most popular answer use the identity $$\sum_{t=0}^n \binom{t}{k} = \binom{n+1}{k+1}.$$ What's the name of this identity? Is it the identity of the Pascal's triangle ...
11
votes
1answer
6k views

$\sum \cos$ when angles are in arithmetic progression [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How can we sum up $\sin$ and $\cos$ series when the angles are in arithmetic progression? Prove $$\cos(\alpha) + \cos(\alpha + \beta) + \cos(\alpha + 2\beta) + \dots + \cos[\...
115
votes
31answers
59k views

Sum of First $n$ Squares Equals $\frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$

I am just starting into calculus and I have a question about the following statement I encountered while learning about definite integrals: $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$$ I really ...
152
votes
23answers
12k views

Proving the identity $\sum_{k=1}^n {k^3} = \big(\sum_{k=1}^n k\big)^2$ without induction

I recently proved that $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^3 = \left(\sum_{k=1}^n k \right)^2$$ using mathematical induction. I'm interested if there's an intuitive explanation, or even a combinatorial interpretation ...
60
votes
6answers
47k views

Combinatorial proof of summation of $\sum\limits_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n \choose n}$

I was hoping to find a more "mathematical" proof, instead of proving logically $\displaystyle \sum_{k = 0}^n {n \choose k}^2= {2n \choose n}$. I already know the logical Proof: $${n \choose k}^2 = {...
11
votes
4answers
2k views

Prove $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n\binom{i+k-1}{k-1}=\binom{n+k}{k}$ (a.k.a. Hockey-Stick Identity) [duplicate]

Let $n$ be a nonnegative integer, and $k$ a positive integer. Could someone explain to me why the identity $$ \sum_{i=0}^n\binom{i+k-1}{k-1}=\binom{n+k}{k} $$ holds?
7
votes
9answers
2k views

How to compute the formula $\sum \limits_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r$?

Given $$1\cdot 2^1 + 2\cdot 2^2 + 3\cdot 2^3 + 4\cdot 2^4 + \cdots + d \cdot 2^d = \sum_{r=1}^d r \cdot 2^r,$$ how can we infer to the following solution? $$2 (d-1) \cdot 2^d + 2. $$ Thank you
17
votes
10answers
8k views

How to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$?

I am trying to prove this binomial identity $\sum_{r=0}^n {r {n \choose r}} = n2^{n-1}$ but am not able to think something except induction,which is of-course not necessary (I think) here, so I am ...
97
votes
5answers
23k views

The sum of an uncountable number of positive numbers

Claim:If $(x_\alpha)_{\alpha\in A}$ is a collection of real numbers $x_\alpha\in [0,\infty]$ such that $\sum_{\alpha\in A}x_\alpha<\infty$, then $x_\alpha=0$ for all but at most countably many $\...
67
votes
4answers
6k views

Identity for convolution of central binomial coefficients: $\sum\limits_{k=0}^n \binom{2k}{k}\binom{2(n-k)}{n-k}=2^{2n}$

It's not difficult to show that $$(1-z^2)^{-1/2}=\sum_{n=0}^\infty \binom{2n}{n}2^{-2n}z^{2n}$$ On the other hand, we have $(1-z^2)^{-1}=\sum z^{2n}$. Squaring the first power series and comparing ...
9
votes
7answers
6k views

Alternating sum of binomial coefficients: given $n \in \mathbb N$, prove $\sum^n_{k=0}(-1)^k {n \choose k} = 0$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. Prove that \begin{align} \sum_{k=0}^n \left(-1\right)^k \binom{n}{k} = 0 . \end{align} I tried to solve it using induction, but that got me nowhere. I think the ...
32
votes
12answers
24k views

Why $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{k}{2^k} = 2$? [duplicate]

Can you please explain why $$ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \dfrac{k}{2^k} = \dfrac{1}{2} +\dfrac{ 2}{4} + \dfrac{3}{8}+ \dfrac{4}{16} +\dfrac{5}{32} + \dots = 2 $$ I know $1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n = \dfrac{n(n+1)}{...
20
votes
5answers
5k views

Algebraic Proof that $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n \binom{n}{i}=2^n$

I'm well aware of the combinatorial variant of the proof, i.e. noting that each formula is a different representation for the number of subsets of a set of $n$ elements. I'm curious if there's a ...
9
votes
4answers
609 views

Proving Binomial Identity without calculus

How to establish the following identities without the help of calculus: For positive integer $n, $ $$\sum_{1\le r\le n}\frac{(-1)^{r-1}\binom nr}r=\sum_{1\le r\le n}\frac1r $$ and $$\sum_{0\le r\le ...
33
votes
5answers
11k views

How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$

Problem : How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$ This is a Harmonic progression : So is this formula correct to sum the series : $\frac{(...
33
votes
4answers
2k views

A closed form of $\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right)$

I am looking for a closed form of the following series \begin{equation} \mathcal{I}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right) \end{equation} I have no idea how to ...
6
votes
3answers
932 views

Evaluating Combination Sum $\sum{n+k\choose 2k} 2^{n-k}$

Evaluate $$\sum_{k=0}^n{n+k\choose 2k} 2^{n-k}$$ So im not really sure how to begin with this. I would imagine we start with dividing out $2^{n}$, but not really sure much past that
7
votes
5answers
10k views

How to prove Vandermonde's Identity: $\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{R}{k}\binom{M}{n-k}=\binom{R+M}{n}$?

How can we prove that $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}\binom{R}{k}\binom{M}{n-k}=\binom{R+M}{n}?$$ (Presumptive) Source: Theoretical Exercise 8, Ch 1, A First Course in Probability, 8th ed by Sheldon Ross.
13
votes
6answers
6k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$ with induction

I am just starting out learning mathematical induction and I got this homework question to prove with induction but I am not managing. $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}{\frac{1}{\sqrt{k}}\ge\sqrt{n}}$$ ...
38
votes
8answers
4k views

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$

why is $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} k^m$ a polynomial with degree $m+1$ in $n$? I know this is well-known. But how to prove it rigorously? Even mathematical induction does not seem so straight-forward. ...
11
votes
6answers
2k views

Expressing a factorial as difference of powers: $\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(l-r)^n=n!$?

The successive difference of powers of integers leads to factorial of that power. Here's the formula: $$\sum_{r=0}^{n}\binom{n}{r}(-1)^r(n-r)^n=n!$$ Can anyone give a proof of this result? Note: ...
7
votes
4answers
2k views

What is the formula for $\frac{1}{1\cdot 2}+\frac{1}{2\cdot 3}+\frac{1}{3\cdot 4}+\cdots +\frac{1}{n(n+1)}$

How can I find the formula for the following equation? $$\frac{1}{1\cdot 2}+\frac{1}{2\cdot 3}+\frac{1}{3\cdot 4}+\cdots +\frac{1}{n(n+1)}$$ More importantly, how would you approach finding the ...
29
votes
2answers
1k views

Trig sum: $\tan ^21^\circ+\tan ^22^\circ+…+\tan^2 89^\circ = ?$

As the title suggests, I'm trying to find the sum $$\tan^21^\circ+\tan^2 2^\circ+...+\tan^2 89^\circ$$ I'm looking for a solution that doesn't involve complex numbers, or any other advanced branch in ...
59
votes
4answers
45k views

What is the term for a factorial type operation, but with summation instead of products? [duplicate]

(Pardon if this seems a bit beginner, this is my first post in math - trying to improve my knowledge while tackling Project Euler problems) I'm aware of Sigma notation, but is there a function/name ...
12
votes
4answers
9k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$

I am being asked to prove that $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^{n}\cos(kx)=\frac{1}{2}+\frac{\sin(\frac{2n+1}{2}x)}{2\sin(x/2)}$$ I have some progress made, but I am stuck and could use some help. What I did: ...
25
votes
2answers
128k views

How to get to the formula for the sum of squares of first n numbers? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: How do I come up with a function to count a pyramid of apples? Proof that $\sum\limits_{k=1}^nk^2 = \frac{n(n+1)(2n+1)}{6}$? Finite Sum of Power? I know that the sum of ...
24
votes
4answers
1k views

How to prove $\sum\limits_{r=0}^n \frac{(-1)^r}{r+1}\binom{n}{r} = \frac1{n+1}$?

Other than the general inductive method,how could we show that $$\sum_{r=0}^n \frac{(-1)^r}{r+1}\binom{n}{r} = \frac1{n+1}$$ Apart from induction, I tried with Wolfram Alpha to check the validity, ...
20
votes
7answers
6k views

Floor function properties: $[2x] = [x] + [ x + \frac12 ]$ and $[nx] = \sum_{k = 0}^{n - 1} [ x + \frac{k}{n} ] $

I'm doing some exercises on Apostol's calculus, on the floor function. Now, he doesn't give an explicit definition of $[x]$, so I'm going with this one: DEFINITION Given $x\in \Bbb R$, the integer ...
9
votes
5answers
10k views

How to show that this binomial sum satisfies the Fibonacci relation?

The binomial sum $$s_n=\binom{n+1}{0}+\binom{n}{1}+\binom{n-1}{2}+\cdots$$ satisfies the Fibonacci relation. I failed to prove that $\binom{n-k+1}{k}=\binom{n-k}{k}+\binom{n-k-1}{k}$... Any hints ...
24
votes
7answers
2k views

Is there a direct, elementary proof of $n = \sum_{k|n} \phi(k)$?

If $k$ is a positive natural number then $\phi(k)$ denotes the number of natural numbers less than $k$ which are prime to $k$. I have seen proofs that $n = \sum_{k|n} \phi(k)$ which basically ...
12
votes
2answers
8k views

Inductive proof that ${2n\choose n}=\sum{n\choose i}^2.$

I would like to prove inductively that $${2n\choose n}=\sum_{i=0}^n{n\choose i}^2.$$ I know a couple of non-inductive proofs, but I can't do it this way. The inductive step eludes me. I tried naively ...
27
votes
13answers
4k views

Methods to compute $\sum_{k=1}^nk^p$ without Faulhaber's formula

As far as every question I've seen concerning "what is $\sum_{k=1}^nk^p$" is always answered with "Faulhaber's formula" and that is just about the only answer. In an attempt to make more interesting ...
24
votes
3answers
4k views

Does uncountable summation, with a finite sum, ever occur in mathematics?

Obviously, “most” of the terms must cancel out with opposite algebraic sign. You can contrive examples such as the sum of the members of R being 0, but does an uncountable sum, with a finite sum, ...
3
votes
2answers
3k views

Proving $\sum\limits_{i=0}^n i 2^{i-1} = (n+1) 2^n - 1$ by induction

I'm trying to apply an induction proof to show that $((n+1) 2^n - 1 $ is the sum of $(i 2^{i-1})$ from $0$ to $n$. the base case: L.H.S = R.H.S we assume that $(k+1) 2^k - 1 $ is true. we need to ...
2
votes
2answers
2k views

Proving the geometric sum formula by induction

$$\sum_{k=0}^nq^k = \frac{1-q^{n+1}}{1-q}$$ I want to prove this by induction. Here's what I have. $$\frac{1-q^{n+1}}{1-q} + q^{n+1} = \frac{1-q^{n+1}+q^{n+1}(1-q)}{1-q}$$ I wanted to factor a $q^{...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

Finite Sum of Power?

Can someone tell me how to get a closed form for $$\sum_{k=1}^n k^p$$ For $p = 1$, it's just the classic $\frac{n(n+1)}2$. What is it for $p > 1$?
12
votes
8answers
2k views

I found this odd relationship, $x^2 = \sum_\limits{k = 0}^{x-1} (2k + 1)$. [duplicate]

I stumbled across this relationship while I was messing around. What's the proof, and how do I understand it intuitively? It doesn't really make sense to me that the sum of odd numbers up to $2x + 1$ ...
19
votes
8answers
13k views

Proving $\sum_{k=0}^n(-1)^k\binom nk=0$

Show that $$\sum_{k=0}^n(-1)^k\binom nk=0$$ So for odd $n$ we have an even number of terms. So $\binom nk=\binom n{n-k}$ which have opposite signs. Thus the sum is 0. For even $n$ we have that $$\...
11
votes
2answers
54k views

Proving by induction that $ \sum_{k=0}^n{n \choose k} = 2^n$

Prove by induction that for all $n \ge 0$: $${n \choose 0} + {n \choose 1} + ... + {n \choose n} = 2^n.$$ In the inductive step, use Pascal’s identity, which is: $${n+1 \choose k} = {n \choose k-1} ...
54
votes
3answers
55k views

$\sum k! = 1! +2! +3! + \cdots + n!$ ,is there a generic formula for this?

I came across a question where I needed to find the sum of the factorials of the first $n$ numbers. So I was wondering if there is any generic formula for this? Like there is a generic formula for ...
29
votes
5answers
6k views

use of $\sum $ for uncountable indexing set

I was wondering whether it makes sense to use the $\sum $ notation for uncountable indexing sets. For example it seems to me it would not make sense to say $$ \sum_{a \in A} a \quad \text{where A is ...
1
vote
7answers
292 views

Proof that $\left(\sum^n_{k=1}x_k\right)\left(\sum^n_{k=1}y_k\right)\geq n^2$

If $x_1,...,x_n$ are positive real numbers and if $y_k=1/x_k$, prove that $$\left(\sum^n_{k=1}x_k\right)\left(\sum^n_{k=1}y_k\right)\geq n^2.$$ I've been learning induction, and I've come across this ...
6
votes
2answers
13k views

Sum of square binomial coefficients [duplicate]

Please feel free to close this is necessary as I didn't see exactly this question (some variations that I tried but didn't seem to apply. Prove: $$\sum_{k=0}^{n}{\binom{n}{k}^2}=\binom{2n}{n}$$ I ...
4
votes
5answers
2k views

Sum with binomial coefficients: $\sum_{k=0}^{n}{2n\choose 2k}$

I'm repeating material for test and I came across the example that I can not do. How to calculate this sum: $\displaystyle\sum_{k=0}^{n}{2n\choose 2k}$?
4
votes
2answers
355 views

Find $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{2^{k+1}-1}$

Calculate $$\sum_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{1}{2^{k+1}-1}.$$ I used Wolfram|Alpha to compute it and got it to be approximately equal to $0.6$. How to compute it? Can someone give me a hint or a suggestion ...
305
votes
8answers
31k views

The length of toilet roll

Fun with Math time. My mom gave me a roll of toilet paper to put it in the bathroom, and looking at it I immediately wondered about this: is it possible, through very simple math, to calculate (with ...