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Questions tagged [special-functions]

Questions on special functions, useful functions that frequently appear in pure and applied mathematics (usually not including "elementary" functions).

46
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3answers
3k views

How do you prove Gautschi's inequality for the gamma function?

A few answers here on math.SE have used as an intermediate step the following inequality that is due to Walter Gautschi: $$x^{1-s} < \frac{\Gamma(x+1)}{\Gamma(x+s)} < (x+1)^{1-s},\qquad x > ...
5
votes
2answers
701 views

What are BesselJ functions?

I solved an integration on mathematica which gives BesselJ functions and some other terms. I explored mathematica help and google but could not understand the difference between different types of ...
35
votes
2answers
3k views

Possibility to simplify $\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{\pi }{{\sin \pi a}}} $

Is there any way to show that $$\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{1}{a} + \sum\limits_{k = 1}^\infty {{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}\left( {\...
152
votes
7answers
12k views

Why is Euler's Gamma function the “best” extension of the factorial function to the reals?

There are lots (an infinitude) of smooth functions that coincide with f(n)=n! on the integers. Is there a simple reason why Euler's Gamma function $\Gamma (z) = \int_0^\infty t^{z-1} e^{-t} dt$ is the ...
30
votes
7answers
4k views

Prove: $\binom{n}{k}^{-1}=(n+1)\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}(1-x)^{n-k}dx$ for $0 \leq k \leq n$

I would like your help with proving that for every $0 \leq k \leq n$, $$\binom{n}{k}^{-1}=(n+1)\int_{0}^{1}x^{k}(1-x)^{n-k}dx . $$ I tried to integration by parts and to get a pattern or to ...
25
votes
4answers
8k views

Calculating alternating Euler sums of odd powers

Definition $$\mathbf{H}_{m}^{(n)}(x) = \sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{H_k^{(n)}}{k^m} x^k\tag{1}$$ We define $$\mathbf{H}_{m}^{(1)}(x) = \mathbf{H}_{m}(x)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{H_k}{k^m} x^k \tag{2}$$ ...
62
votes
11answers
44k views

Why is $\Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}\right)=\sqrt{\pi}$ ?

It seems as if no one has asked this here before, unless I don't know how to search. The Gamma function is $$ \Gamma(\alpha)=\int_0^\infty x^{\alpha-1} e^{-x}\,dx. $$ Why is $$ \Gamma\left(\frac{1}{2}...
30
votes
4answers
2k views

Interesting integral related to the Omega Constant/Lambert W Function

I ran across an interesting integral and I am wondering if anyone knows where I may find its derivation or proof. I looked through the site. If it is here and I overlooked it, I am sorry. $$\...
15
votes
7answers
1k views

Evaluating $\int_0^\infty \frac{dx}{1+x^4}$. [duplicate]

Can anyone give me a hint to evaluate this integral? $$\int_0^\infty \frac{dx}{1+x^4}$$ I know it will involve the gamma function, but how?
4
votes
3answers
1k views

What does | mean?

I found this symbol on Wolfram|Alpha. Does it mean "or"? $$ \large \cos^{-1}(-1)=\mathrm{cd}^{-1}(-1\mid 0)$$
4
votes
2answers
551 views

Proof of dilogarithm reflection formula $\zeta(2)-\log(x)\log(1-x)=\operatorname{Li}_2(x)+\operatorname{Li}_2(1-x)$

How to prove $$\zeta(2)-\log(x)\log(1-x)=\operatorname{Li}_2(x)+\operatorname{Li}_2(1-x)$$ I havent started, any hints?
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Roots of the incomplete gamma function

Is there any way that one can describe all the roots of the incomplete gamma function $\Gamma(n,z)$, for $n\in \mathbb{N}$, analytically?
12
votes
2answers
930 views

Definite Dilogarithm integral $\int^1_0 \frac{\operatorname{Li}_2^2(x)}{x}\, dx $

Prove the following $$\int^1_0 \frac{\operatorname{Li}_2^2(x)}{x}\, dx = -3\zeta(5)+\pi^2 \frac{\zeta(3)}{3}$$ where $$\operatorname{Li}^2_2(x) =\left(\int^x_0 \frac{\log(1-t)}{t}\,dt \right)^2$$
23
votes
6answers
17k views

Algorithm to compute Gamma function

The question is simple. I would like to implement the Gamma function in my calculator written in C; however, I have not been able to find an easy way to programmatically compute an approximation to ...
17
votes
4answers
1k views

Integral $\int_0^1 \log \left(\Gamma\left(x+\alpha\right)\right)\,{\rm d}x=\frac{\log\left( 2 \pi\right)}{2}+\alpha \log\left(\alpha\right) -\alpha$

Hi I am trying to prove$$ I:=\int_0^1 \log\left(\,\Gamma\left(x+\alpha\right)\,\right)\,{\rm d}x =\frac{\log\left(2\pi\right)}{2}+\alpha \log\left(\alpha\right) -\alpha\,,\qquad \alpha \geq 0. $$ I am ...
11
votes
4answers
11k views

Inverse of $y=xe^x$

I feel like finding the inverse of $y=xe^x$ should have an easy answer but can't find it.
16
votes
1answer
5k views

Is there an Inverse Gamma $\Gamma^{-1} (z) $ function?

Since $\Gamma$ is not one to one over the complex domain, Is it possible to define some principal values ( analogues to Principal Roots for the Root function ) so we can have a $\Gamma^{-1} (z)$ (...
27
votes
3answers
2k views

Why isn't the gamma function defined so that $\Gamma(n) = n! $?

As a physics student, I have occasionally run across the gamma function $$\Gamma(n) \equiv \int_0^{\infty}t^{n-1}e^{-t} \textrm{d}t = (n-1)!$$ when we want to generalize the concept of a factorial. ...
33
votes
4answers
4k views

Proving a known zero of the Riemann Zeta has real part exactly 1/2

Much effort has been expended on a famous unsolved problem about the Riemann Zeta function $\zeta(s)$. Not surprisingly, it's called the Riemann hypothesis, which asserts: $$ \zeta(s) = 0 \...
19
votes
2answers
3k views

Series of logarithms $\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \ln(k)$ (Ramanujan summation?)

I had this question earlier, so to say as a "standalone" problem, but now it pops up in context of an analysis with the lngamma-function. As well as we can convert the question of sums of like powers $...
17
votes
5answers
15k views

How to accurately calculate the error function $\operatorname{erf}(x)$ with a computer?

I am looking for an accurate algorithm to calculate the error function $$\operatorname{erf}(x)=\frac{2}{\sqrt{\pi}}\int_0^x e^{-t^2}\ dt$$ I have tried using the following formula, (Handbook of ...
12
votes
2answers
919 views

How to find $\zeta(0)=\frac{-1}{2}$ by definition?

I would like to know how we can find the following result: $$\zeta(0)=-\frac12$$ Is there a way, using the definition, $$\zeta(s)=\sum_{i=1}^{\infty}i^{-s}$$ to find this?
4
votes
3answers
1k views

Short calculation of the dilogarithm?

Is there a nice way to implement the dilogarithm function for real values, without actually performing the integration? A series solution would have been nice, but the series around $0$ has a ...
2
votes
1answer
939 views

About the Legendre differential equation

Consider the Legendre differential equation $$ (1-x^2) y'' - 2xy' + n(n+1)y = 0 $$ Then its solution is given by $$ y = c_1 P_n (x) + \text{an infinite series} $$ In fact $y = c_1 P_n (x) + c_2 Q_n (x)...
34
votes
1answer
703 views

Are elementary and generalized hypergeometric functions sufficient to express all algebraic numbers?

Are (integers) plus (elementary functions) plus (generalized hypergeometric functions) sufficient to represent any algebraic number? For example, the real algebraic number $\alpha\in(-1,0)$ ...
25
votes
2answers
2k views

Evaluating $\int_0^1 \frac{x \arctan x \log \left( 1-x^2\right)}{1+x^2}dx$

I am trying to prove that $$\int_0^1 \frac{x \arctan x \log \left( 1-x^2\right)}{1+x^2}dx = -\frac{\pi^3}{48}-\frac{\pi}{8}\log^2 2 +G\log 2$$ where $G$ is the Catalan's Constant. Numerically, it's ...
11
votes
1answer
5k views

Real and imaginary part of Gamma function

Is there a way to separate the real and imgainary part of the gamma function $$\Gamma (a+ib)$$ I thought of using the formula $$\zeta(z) \Gamma(z) = \int^{\infty}_0\frac{t^{z-1}}{e^t-1}\, dt$$ ...
17
votes
2answers
4k views

Minimum of the Gamma Function $\Gamma (x)$ for $x>0$. How to find $x_{\min}$?

The $\Gamma (x)$ function has just one minimum for $x>0$ . This result uses some properties of the gamma function: $\Gamma ^{\prime \prime }(x)>0$ and $\Gamma (x)>0$ for all $x>0$ $\Gamma ...
9
votes
2answers
2k views

Integrating a product of exponentials and error functions

I have the following integral $$ \int\limits_0^\infty x^2\exp(-\delta x^2)\operatorname{erf}(\gamma x)\,dx. $$ Ideally, I would like a closed-form in terms of common functions, but a series answer ...
50
votes
1answer
2k views

A Challenging Logarithmic Integral $\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx$

How can we prove that: $$\int_0^1 \frac{\log(x)\log(1-x)\log^2(1+x)}{x}dx=\frac{7\pi^2}{48}\zeta(3)-\frac{25}{16}\zeta(5)$$ where $\zeta(z)$ is the Riemann Zeta Function. The best I could do was ...
28
votes
4answers
1k views

Polygamma function series: $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty }\left(\Psi^{(1)}(k)\right)^2$

Applying the Copson's inequality, I found: $$S=\displaystyle\sum_{k=1}^{\infty }\left(\Psi^{(1)}(k)\right)^2\lt\dfrac{2}{3}\pi^2$$ where $\Psi^{(1)}(k)$ is the polygamma function. Is it known any ...
30
votes
4answers
4k views

When is an elliptic integral expressible in terms of elementary functions?

After seeing this recent question asking how to calculate the following integral $$ \int \frac{1 + x^2}{(1 - x^2) \sqrt{1 + x^4}} \, dx $$ and some of the comments that suggested that it was an ...
17
votes
3answers
2k views

Limit of Zeta function

I'm looking for a reference for (or an elementary proof of) $$ \lim_{s \rightarrow 1} \left( \zeta(s) - \frac{1}{s-1} \right) = \gamma$$ Thanks for your help.
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Closed form for integral of integer powers of Sinc function

(Edit: Thank you Vladimir for providing the references for the closed form value of the integrals. My revised question is then to how to derive this closed form.) For all $n\in\mathbb{N}^+$, define ...
5
votes
2answers
884 views

The trigonometric solution to the solvable DeMoivre quintic?

Using the relations for the Rogers-Ramanujan cfrac described in this post, $$\frac{1}{r}-r = x$$ $$\frac{1}{r^5}-r^5 = y$$ and eliminating $r$ yields, $$x^5+5x^3+5x = y$$ This is the case $a=1$ ...
5
votes
1answer
1k views

How to prove the transformation formula for Jacobi classic theta function

How to prove the following transformation formula: $$ \theta(x)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{x}} \theta\left(\frac{1}{x}\right), $$ where $\theta$ is the Jacobi theta function $\theta(x)=\sum_{n\in \mathbb{Z}} e^{-\...
2
votes
1answer
249 views

Re-Expressing the Digamma

I was reading some articles on the digamma function, and I was wondering if anyone knows how to express the digamma function $\psi^{(0)}(n)$ in terms of a trigonometric function or a logarithmic ...
1
vote
1answer
489 views

How does one calculate the amount of time required for computation?

For example, to compute the zeroes of the Riemann zeta function using the Euler-Maclaurin summation method one has to do O(T) work. The Euler-Maclaurin summation method for zeta is given by $ \zeta(s)...
1
vote
1answer
115 views

Generalized Owen's T function

As Wikipedia teaches us https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Owen%27s_T_function the Owen's T function $T(h,a)$ defines a probability of a bivariate event $X>h$ and $0<Y<a X$ where $X,Y$ are ...
26
votes
2answers
4k views

Beta function derivation

How do I derive the Beta function using the definition of the beta function as the normalizing constant of the Beta distribution and only common sense random experiments? I'm pretty sure this is ...
33
votes
3answers
15k views

Easy explanation of analytic continuation

Today, as I was flipping through my copy of Higher Algebra by Barnard and Child, I came across a theorem which said, The series $$ 1+\frac{1}{2^p} +\frac{1}{3^p}+...$$ diverges for $p\leq 1$ and ...
28
votes
3answers
1k views

Prove ${\large\int}_{-1}^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]{9+4\sqrt5\,x}\ \left(1-x^2\right)^{2/3}}=\frac{3^{3/2}}{2^{4/3}5^{5/6}\pi }\Gamma^3\left(\frac13\right)$

Here is one more conjecture I discovered numerically: $${\large\int}_{-1}^1\frac{dx}{\sqrt[3]{9+4\sqrt5\,x}\ \left(1-x^2\right)^{\small2/3}}\stackrel{\color{#808080}?}=\frac{3^{\small3/2}}{2^{\small4/...
32
votes
3answers
1k views

Prove $_2F_1\left(\frac13,\frac13;\frac56;-27\right)\stackrel{\color{#808080}?}=\frac47$

I discovered the following conjecture numerically, but have not been able to prove it yet: $$_2F_1\left(\frac13,\frac13;\frac56;-27\right)\stackrel{\color{#808080}?}=\frac47.\tag1$$ The equality holds ...
16
votes
1answer
523 views

Integral that arises from the derivation of Kummer's Fourier expansion of $\ln{\Gamma(x)}$

I am trying to prove that for $0<x<1$, $$\color{blue}{\ln{\Gamma(x)}=\frac{1}{2}\ln(2\pi)+\sum^\infty_{n=1}\left\{\frac{1}{2n}\cos(2\pi nx)+\frac{\gamma+\ln(2\pi n)}{n\pi}\sin(2\pi nx)\right\}}$$...
20
votes
1answer
461 views

An elementary proof of $\int_{0}^{1}\frac{\arctan x}{\sqrt{x(1-x^2)}}\,dx = \frac{1}{32}\sqrt{2\pi}\,\Gamma\left(\tfrac{1}{4}\right)^2$

When playing with the complete elliptic integral of the first kind and its Fourier-Legendre expansion, I discovered that a consequence of $\sum_{n\geq 0}\binom{2n}{n}^2\frac{1}{16^n(4n+1)}=\frac{1}{16\...
14
votes
2answers
4k views

How to evaluate Riemann Zeta function

How do I evaluate this function for given $s$? $$\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac1{n^s} = \frac{1}{1^s} + \frac{1}{2^s} + \frac{1}{3^s} + \cdots$$
17
votes
1answer
6k views

Quotient of gamma functions?

I'm sorry if this is a simple question, but this page on Wolfram Research states that it follows from Stirling's formula that: $$ \frac{\Gamma(x+\beta)}{\Gamma(x)} \approx x^\beta $$ for large $x$, ...
4
votes
1answer
691 views

How to solve the Brioschi quintic in terms of elliptic functions?

Given the Brioschi quintic $$w^{5}-10cw^{3}+45c^{2}w-c^2=0$$ I'm interested in seeing different ways of solving it in terms of elliptic functions or theta functions.
9
votes
2answers
465 views

Another integral related to Fresnel integrals

How would we prove this result by real methods ? $$\int_0^{\infty } \frac{\sin \left(\pi x^2\right)}{x+2} \, dx=\frac{1}{4} \left(\pi-2 \pi C\left(2 \sqrt{2}\right)-2 \pi S\left(2 \sqrt{2}\right)+...
8
votes
1answer
1k views

Higher Order Trigonometric Function

Once in a time, I had to work with functions that have the following Taylor series expansion: $$ t_m(x)=1-\frac{x^m}{m!}+\frac{x^{2m}}{(2m)!}+\cdots =\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{(-1)^k x^{km}}{(km)!}. $$ ...