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Questions tagged [sobolev-spaces]

For questions about or related to Sobolev spaces, which are function spaces equipped with a norm combining norms of a function and its derivatives.

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30
votes
0answers
916 views

Why are functions with vanishing normal derivative dense in smooth functions?

Question Let $M$ be a compact Riemannian manifold with piecewise smooth boundary. Why are smooth functions with vanishing normal derivative dense in $C^\infty(M)$ in the $H^1$ norm? Here I define $...
27
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2answers
5k views

Sobolev space $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an algebra with $2s>n$

How do you prove that the Sobolev space $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an algebra if $s>\frac{n}{2}$, i.e. if $u,v$ are in $H^s(\mathbb{R}^n)$, then so is $uv$? Actually I think we should also have $\lVert ...
25
votes
2answers
833 views

Why are $L^p$-spaces so ubiquitous?

It always baffled me why $L^p$-spaces are the spaces of choice in almost any area (sometimes with some added regularity (Sobolev/Besov/...)). I understand that the exponent allows for convenient ...
17
votes
3answers
1k views

Are polynomials dense in Gaussian Sobolev space?

Let $\mu$ be standard Gaussian measure on $\mathbb{R}^n$, i.e. $d\mu = (2\pi)^{-n/2} e^{-|x|^2/2} dx$, and define the Gaussian Sobolev space $H^1(\mu)$ to be the completion of $C_c^\infty(\mathbb{R}^n)...
17
votes
1answer
484 views

Suppose that there exist a set $\Gamma$ of positive measure such that $\nabla u=0, a.e.\ x\in\Gamma$.

Suppose $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ is a bounded domain. Let $u\in H_0^1(\Omega)$ and $\tilde{u}\in L^2(\Omega)$ satisfies $$\int_\Omega\nabla u\nabla v=\int_\Omega \tilde{u}v,\ \forall\ v\in C_0^{\...
16
votes
1answer
5k views

How to prove the spectrum of the Laplace operator?

How can I prove that the spectrum of the Laplace operator $$\Delta: H^2(\mathbb{R}^N)\subset L^2(\mathbb{R}^N)\rightarrow L^2(\mathbb{R}^N)$$ is $\sigma(\Delta)=[-\infty,0]$?
16
votes
2answers
6k views

Dual space of $H^1$

It holds that $W^{1,2}=H^1 \subset L^2 \subset H^{-1}$. This is clear since for every $v \in H^1(U)$, $u \mapsto (u,v)_{H^1}$ is an element of $H^{-1}$. Moreover for every $v \in L^2(U)$, $u \mapsto (...
16
votes
1answer
7k views

The Sobolev Space $H^{1/2}$

This is a very stupid question. In my course on linear PDEs, the professor used $H^{1/2}$ without defining it, and I have been looking on google trying to find a definition, but the only related thing ...
16
votes
1answer
993 views

Existence theorem on weak solutions of ordinary differential equations

Consider an ordinary vector-valued differential equation of the form $$ \begin{align*} \dot y(t) &= f(t,y(t)), \\ y(0) &= y_0 \in \mathbb{R}^n. \end{align*} $$ It is well known that if $f$ is ...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

How is the acting of $H^{-1}$ on $H^1_0$ defined?

I have a question about the Sobolev Space $H^1_0(U)$, where $U$ is a open subset of $\mathbb{R}^n$. Let us denote with $H^{-1}(U)$ the dual space of $H^1_0$. How is the acting of $H^{-1}$ and $...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Why do we need semi-norms on Sobolev-spaces?

I have been studying Sobolev spaces and easy PDEs on those spaces for a while now and keep wondering about the norms on these spaces. We obviously have the usual norm $\|\cdot\|_{W^{k,p}}$, but some ...
15
votes
3answers
8k views

What does “test function” mean?

I am trying to learn weak derivatives. In that, we call $\mathbb{C}^{\infty}_{c}$ functions as test functions and we use these functions in weak derivatives. I want to understand why these are called ...
15
votes
2answers
824 views

Smoothing a Sobolev function

Let $u \in H^1({\mathbb R}^n)$, $n \geq 2$. Let $\varphi \in C^\infty_0({\mathbb R}^n)$ with $\varphi \geq 0$. Let $\eta$ be a smoothing kernel with $\eta \in C^\infty_0({\mathbb R}^n)$, $\eta \geq ...
14
votes
1answer
635 views

Intuition behind losing half a derivative via the trace operator

This is an informal question, but here goes: For a function $f \in H^s(\Omega)$ ($s > 1/2$), there is a well-defined operator (the trace) $T$ such that $Tf = f\vert_{\partial \Omega}$ if $f \in C^\...
14
votes
1answer
187 views

Are Sobolev spaces $W^{k,1}(\mathbb R^d)$ and $H^{k,1}(\mathbb R^d)$ the same?

We consider the following spaces $H^{k,p}(\mathbb R^d)$, $k \geq 1$ is integer, $p \geq 1$ (Bessel potential spaces): $$ H^{k,p}(\mathbb R^d) = \bigl\{ f \in L^p(\mathbb R^d) \colon \mathcal F^{-1}[...
14
votes
2answers
698 views

Elliptic regularity in Sobolev spaces of negative order

I am having some trouble with Sobolev spaces of negative order. More precisely I am considering the space $W^{-1,p}(\mathbb{R}^2),$ considered as 'the' dual space of $W^{1,q}(\mathbb{R}^2).$ Question ...
13
votes
1answer
2k views

Vector, Hilbert, Banach, Sobolev spaces

Trying to wrap my head around all these different spaces. Which one is the most general? Can you summarize the differences between them? Is there a notable space that I missed?
13
votes
2answers
1k views

$C^\infty_{0}(\bar\Omega)$ dense in $W^{k,p}(\Omega)$: the closure is necessary?

It is a fundamental result of Sobolve space that Let $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^d$ or $\mathbb{R}^d_+$, then $C^\infty_{0}(\bar\Omega)$ is dense in $W^{k,p}(\Omega)$. However, in some ...
13
votes
1answer
790 views

Why are weak solutions to PDEs good enough?

Obviously solutions in $C^k$ are nicer but it seems people are happy with obtaining weak solutions in some Sobolev space that only satisfy the weak formulation. Why should this, in the real world, be ...
13
votes
1answer
3k views

Sobolev embedding for $W^{1,\infty}$?

From the Evans'PDE book I learned $W^{1,\infty}(U)$ coincide with Lipschitz continuous $C^{0,1}(U)$ with $U\in\Bbb{R}^n(n\geqslant1)$ is bounded and $\partial U\in C^1$. I wonder the counterpart ...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Why no trace operator in $L^2(\Omega)$?

We have trace operator which allows us to define boundary values of an $H^1$ function. This is because of the fact that $C^\infty$ is dense in $H^1$ under the $H^1$ norm, I believe. I'm sure either $...
13
votes
1answer
260 views

Pointwise estimate for a sequence of mollified functions

In the answer to Characterisation of one-dimensional Sobolev space Tomás wrote ... let $\eta_\delta$ be the standard mollifier sequence. Let $u_\delta=\eta_\delta\star u$ and note that for any $c\...
13
votes
0answers
139 views

Regularity of parabolic PDEs for large $\lambda$

Let $\Omega$ be a sufficiently smooth domain, $T>0$, and $L$ be the following elliptic operator of the divergence form: $$Lu(t,x)=a^{ij}(t,x)u_{ij}(t,x),$$ such that $a^{ij}\in C([0,T]\times\bar{\...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Sobolev meets Wiener

Even though the Wiener process (Brownian motion) is continuous, it has no derivative at any point. Does it at least have weak derivatives?
12
votes
4answers
5k views

dual of $H^1_0$: $H^{-1}$ or $H_0^1$?

I have a problem related to dual of Sobolev space $H^1_0$. By definition, the dual of $H^1_0$ is $H^{-1}$, which contains $L^2$ as a subspace. However, from Riesz representation theorem, dual of a ...
12
votes
1answer
4k views

The dual of the Sobolev space $W^{k,p}$

The dual of the Sobolev space if defined to be $$(W^{k,p}(\Omega))' = W_0^{-k,p'}(\Omega)$$ where $\frac 1 p + \frac 1 {p'} = 1$. Why makes this definition sense, especially why do we have $L^{p'}$-...
12
votes
1answer
4k views

Elliptic Regularity Theorem

I want to collect some results on elliptic regularity. The problem I consider is \begin{align} Lu&=f,&in \quad U,\\ u&=g,&on \quad \partial U.\tag{1} ...
12
votes
1answer
442 views

prove or disprove an inequality on bounds of derivatives for radial functions

Suppose $f$ is a radial function, i.e., $f(x)=f(|x|)$, and $f \in C^\infty(\bar{B})$, where $\bar{B}$ is the closure of the unit ball in $\mathbb{R}^n$. Prove or disprove the following. Given any ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Some basics of Sobolev spaces

Let $W^{m,p}(\Omega) = \{ f \in L^p(\Omega): D^\alpha f \in L^p(\Omega) \text{ for multi-indices } |\alpha| \leq m\}$, where $D$ denotes the weak derivative. Let $W_0^{m,p}$ denote the closure of $C_c^...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

The Relation between Holder continuous, absolutely continuous, $W^{1,1}$, and $BV$ functions

I am trying to find out the relation between those spaces. Take $I\subset R$ on the real line. $I$ can be unbounded. Then I have: We first assume $I$ is bounded. If $u\in C^{0,\alpha}(I)$, for $0<\...
11
votes
4answers
3k views

Product rule of weak derivatives

I am working on proving the following proposition: If $u,v\in {W^1(\Omega)}$ and $uv,uDv+vDu\in L^1_{\operatorname{loc}}(\Omega)$, then we have the product formula $$D(uv)=uDv+vDu.$$ The definition I ...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Besov spaces---concrete description of spatial inhomogeneity

Some very pedestrian questions about Besov spaces. Just to fix notation: 1.Let $f \in \mathcal{S}'$, the space of tempered distributions. 2.$\Psi, \{ \Phi_n \}_{n \geq 0} \subset \mathcal{S}$ such ...
11
votes
2answers
3k views

Sobolev spaces fourier norm equivalence

I am reading about Sobolev spaces and I have a question regarding Sobolev spaces and the Fourier transform. So by defining the Fourier transform, $F(\cdot)$ as an isometry we get $||f||_{L^2}=||\...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Extension and trace operators for Sobolev spaces

Given that $\Omega \subset \mathbb{R}^{n}$ is an open, convex, Lipschitz bounded set. Let $O \subset \Omega$ be open bounded set then consider. $$u_{m} \rightharpoonup^{*} u \text{ in } W^{1,\infty}_{...
11
votes
1answer
522 views

Short and elegant introduction to Sobolev spaces

I am preparing a course on Nonlinear Analysis, and I need to teach the most important facts about Sobolev spaces to my students. I know most books on this subject, from Brezis' to Adams', from Mazya's ...
11
votes
1answer
1k views

Hille Yosida theorem application

Disclaimer: pretty long and specific (contraction semi groups involved). I have fourth order parabolic equation $$ u_t + \Delta^2 u = 0 $$ on $U_T = U \times [0,T]$. $U \subset \mathbb{R}^m$ is a ...
11
votes
0answers
336 views

$\int\limits_{\Omega}{uvdx}<\infty,\forall v\in H_0^1(\Omega)$ implies $u\in L^{6/5}(\Omega)$

Let $d=3$ and $\Omega\subset \mathbb R^d$ is a bounded Lipschitz domain and $u$ is a measurable function. A sufficient condition for the integral $\int\limits_{\Omega}{uvdx}<\infty,\forall v\in H_0^...
11
votes
0answers
215 views

Question about boundedness of a sequence in $ W^{3,q} $ for any $ 1\leq q < \frac{N}{N-1} $

I have asked this question several months ago, I have understood every thing and there are good comments and they have helped me , but only I have a question about tomas comment, how can Calderón-...
11
votes
1answer
285 views

A Question on certain Hilbert space of continuous functions, and a characteristic of convergence in it

Define $T^k(\Omega)$, $\Omega$ an open subset of $\mathbb{R}^m$ (with a smooth boundary), as a space of function equivalance classes, with the norm defined as $$ \|f\|_{T^k(\Omega)}^2 = \|f\|_{L^2(...
10
votes
3answers
6k views

$C^\infty$ dense in Sobolev spaces

I'm reading a theorem which says that $C^\infty$ intersection with $W^{k,p}$ is dense in $W^{k,p}$. I don't understand why they take the intersection. Isn't it $C^\infty$ a subspace of $W^{k,p}$? ...
10
votes
2answers
3k views

Chain rule in the Sobolev space $W^{1,p}$

(Chain rule) Assume $F : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ is $C^1$, with $F'$ bounded. Suppose $U$ is bounded and $u \in W^{1,p}(U)$ for some $1 \le p \le \infty$. Show $$v :=F(u) \in W^{1,p}(U) \quad \text{...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Counterexample of Sobolev Embedding Theorem?

Is there a counterexample of Sobolev Embedding Theorem? More precisely, please help me construct a sobolev function $u\in W^{1,p}(R^n),\,p\in[1,n)$ such that $u\notin L^q(R^n)$, where $q>p^*:=\frac{...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

Rellich–Kondrachov theorem for traces

Let $W^{1,p}(\Omega)$ be the Sobolev space of weakly differentiable functions whose weak derivatives are $p$-integrable, where $\Omega \subset \mathbb R^n$ is a domain with Lipschitz boundary. Let ...
10
votes
2answers
239 views

$W^{s,p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ Is Not Closed Under Multiplication when $s\leq n/p$

For $s\in\mathbb{R}$, $1<p<\infty$, and $n\geq 1$, define the Sobolev space $W^{s,p}(\mathbb{R}^{n})$ by $$W^{s,p}(\mathbb{R}^{n}):=\left\{f\in\mathcal{S}(\mathbb{R}^{n}) : \|(\langle{\xi}\...
10
votes
1answer
151 views

Proof Nehari manifold of semilineal subcritical $-\Delta u = f(u)$ in $\Omega$ is not empty.

Given the problem $$ \left\{ \begin{array}{rll} -\Delta u& = f(u) & \text{in }\Omega \\ u & = 0 & \text{in } \partial\Omega \end{array} \right. $$ In a bounded domain $\Omega\subset ...
10
votes
1answer
728 views

Differences between $-\Delta: H_0^1(\Omega)\to H^{-1}(\Omega)$ and $-\Delta: H^2(\Omega)\cap H_0^1(\Omega)\to L^2(\Omega)$

I'll try to explain what I want to know: Let $\Omega\subset\mathbb{R}^n$ be a bounded domain. When we look to $-\Delta: H^2(\Omega)\cap H_0^1(\Omega)\to L^2(\Omega)$, the meaning of $-\Delta$ is ...
10
votes
1answer
231 views

Two definitions of $H^1(\partial\Omega)$, one using charts and one use tangential gradients

Let $\Omega$ be a bounded Lipschitz domain with boundary $\partial\Omega$. There are two ways to define a space $H^1(\partial\Omega)$: By using charts, we can define $H^1(\partial\Omega)$ to contain ...
10
votes
1answer
599 views

Understanding a theorem concerning Sobolev spaces

I have two doubts in the proof of the theorem below. If you want the detaIls can be found here. Theorem A Let $q$ a given real number $q>p$. Let $u \in W^{1,p}$ be a solution to (E2). Assume ...
10
votes
0answers
246 views

Energy inequalities with negative sobolev number.

Let $\phi\in H^{s}$ such that the following energy inequality is true: $$\|\phi(t,\cdot)\|_s \le\int^t_0 C \| P\phi(t,\cdot)\|_s \, dt $$ where $P$ is a strictly hyperbolic linear operator. For ...
9
votes
2answers
1k views

Intuition behind Sobolev Inequality

What is the intuition behind the Sobolev-type inequality (The Gagliardo-Nirenberg-Sobolev Inequality) Assume $1\leq p <n$ and $U$ a be a bounded open subset of $\mathbb{R}^{n}$, and suppose $\...