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Questions tagged [sheaf-theory]

A Sheaf $\mathcal F$ on a topological space $X$ captures local data $\mathcal F(U)$ given on open sets $U\subseteq X$ and how such data can be restricted to smaller open sets or glued together. In typical cases, $\mathcal F(U)$ is a set of functions defined on $U$ and an element of $\mathcal F(V)$, $V\subseteq U$ is obtained by restricting the domain and not all elements of $\mathcal F(U)$ can be obtained by restricting a global section $\in\mathcal F(X)$.

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Sheaf cohomology: what is it and where can I learn it?

As I understand it, sheaf cohomology is now an indispensable tool in algebraic geometry, but was originally developed to solve problems in algebraic topology. I have two questions about the matter. ...
67
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0answers
5k views

Pullback and Pushforward Isomorphism of Sheaves

Suppose we have two schemes $X, Y$ and a map $f\colon X\to Y$. Then we know that $\operatorname{Hom}_X(f^*\mathcal{G}, \mathcal{F})\simeq \operatorname{Hom}_Y(\mathcal{G}, f_*\mathcal{F})$, where $\...
35
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3answers
2k views

Sanity check about Wikipedia definition of differentiable manifold as a locally ringed space

Most textbooks introduce differentiable manifolds via atlases and charts. This has the advantage of being concrete, but the disadvantage that the local coordinates are usually completely irrelevant- ...
32
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3answers
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Failure of isomorphisms on stalks to arise from an isomorphism of sheaves

It is well-known (Hartshorne 2.1.1) that if $F$ and $G$ are sheaves on a space $X$, then $\phi:F\rightarrow G$ is an isomorphism if and only if the induced stalk map $\phi_p:F_p\rightarrow G_p$ is an ...
31
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1answer
1k views

Quasi-coherent sheaves, schemes, and the Gabriel-Rosenberg theorem

In the context of commutative rings, a ring is completely determined by its category of modules. That is, two commutative rings $R$ and $S$ are isomorphic if and only if the category of $R$-modules is ...
28
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2answers
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When is the sheaf corresponding to a vector bundle on a smooth manifold coherent?

In algebraic and analytic geometry, vector bundles are usually interpreted as locally free sheaves of modules (over the structure sheaves). They are in particular examples of quasi-coherent sheaves. ...
24
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2answers
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Grothendieck's yoga of six operations - in relatively basic terms?

I'm reading about the basic interactions between sheaves over topological spaces and arrows in $\mathsf{Top}$, in particular, about the inverse/direct image functors $f^\ast \dashv f_\ast$, the proper ...
23
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3answers
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Why doesn't Hom commute with taking stalks?

I have been learning about sheaves and am thinking about the following problem. Let $F$ and $G$ be sheaves, say of abelian groups, on a space $X$. The sheaf $Hom(F, G)$ is defined by $Hom(F, G)(U)=Mor(...
23
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2answers
3k views

tensor product of sheaves commutes with inverse image

Let $f : X \to Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces and $\mathcal{M}$, $\mathcal{N}$ sheaves of $\mathcal{O}_Y$-modules. Then one has a canonical isomorphism $f^*(\mathcal{M} \otimes_{\mathcal{O}_Y} \...
22
votes
7answers
5k views

Examples of surjective sheaf morphisms which are not surjective on sections

Let $X$ be a topological space, and let $\mathscr{F}, \mathscr{G}$ be sheaves of sets on $X$. It is well-known that a morphism $\varphi : \mathscr{F} \to \mathscr{G}$ is epic (in the category of ...
22
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2answers
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How should I think about very ample sheaves?

Definition. [Hartshorne] If $X$ is any scheme over $Y$, an invertible sheaf $\mathcal{L}$ is very ample relative to $Y$, if there is an imersion $i:X \to \mathbb{P}_Y^r$ for some $r$ such that $i^\ast(...
22
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1answer
665 views

Category of quasicoherent sheaves not abelian

Wikipedia mentions that the category of quasicoherent sheaves need not form an abelian category on general ringed spaces. Is there a `naturally occurring' example of this failing, even for locally ...
21
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4answers
3k views

Sheaves and complex analysis

A complex analysis professor once told me that "sheaves are all over the place" in complex analysis. Of course one can define the sheaf of holomorphic functions: if $U\subset \mathbf{C}$ (or $\mathbf{...
21
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1answer
3k views

The idea behind the notion of dualizing sheaf

Well, studying sheaf cohomology, I've faced the notion of dualizing sheaf on a projective scheme over a field $k$. Recall that a dualizing sheaf on $X$ (according to Hartshorne) is a coherent sheaf $\...
21
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1answer
2k views

How to properly use GAGA correspondence

currently studying algebraic surfaces over the complex numbers. Before i did some algebraic geometry (I,II,start of III of Hartshorne) and a course on Riemann surfaces. Now i understood that by GAGA, ...
21
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1answer
2k views

Differentiable manifolds as locally ringed spaces

Let $X$ be a differentiable manifold. Let $\mathcal{O}_X$ be the sheaf of $\mathcal{C}^\infty$ functions on $X$. Since every stalk of $\mathcal{O}_X$ is a local ring, $(X, \mathcal{O}_X)$ is a locally ...
21
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3answers
1k views

What is the difference between $\ell$-adic cohomology and cohomology with coefficient in $Z_\ell$?

Let $X$ be a non-singular projective variety over $\mathbb{Q}$. Consider on the one hand $H^i_B(X(\mathbb{C}),\mathbb{Z}_\ell)$ the singular cohomology with value in $\mathbb{Z}_\ell$, and on the ...
21
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1answer
556 views

functoriality of derivations

I seem to have problems understanding algebraically why given a map of manifolds $f: M \to N$ we get a bundle map $TM \to f^*TN$. Now, fiberwise it's all good. But I do not understand how to define ...
21
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0answers
568 views

Sheaves of categories

I recently read an answer on this MO post explaining that one reason people are interested in higher category theory is to make reasonable sense of something like a "sheaf of categories" on a ...
20
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3answers
942 views

Sheaf Theory for Complex Analysis

I've recently been reading Complex Analysis in One Variable by Narasimhan and Nievergelt. I've done enough work in complex analysis prior that I find the majority of the text quite understandable and ...
19
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3answers
3k views

Tensor product of invertible sheaves

Given two invertible sheaves $\mathcal{F}$ and $\mathcal{G}$, one can define their tensor product, but in this definition $\mathcal{F} \otimes \mathcal{G} (U)$ is (apparently) not simply equal to $\...
19
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1answer
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Global sections of a tensor product of vector bundles on a smooth manifold

This question is similar to Conditions such that taking global sections of line bundles commutes with tensor product? and Tensor product of invertible sheaves except that I am concerned with ...
18
votes
1answer
2k views

Using the cocycle condition to glue sheaves

Given a cover $\{U_i\}$ of a space $X$ and for each $U_i$ a sheaf $\mathcal{F}_i$ and isomorphisms $\phi_{ij}:\mathcal{F_j}|_{U_i \cap U_j} \rightarrow \mathcal{F_i}|_{U_i \cap U_j}$ satisfying the ...
18
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1answer
2k views

Why are de Rham cohomology and Cech cohomology of the constant sheaf the same

I am comfortable with de Rham cohomology, sheaves, sheaf cohomology and Cech cohomology. I am looking to prove the following theorem: If $M$ is a smooth manifold of dimension $m$, then we have the ...
17
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3answers
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When is the pushforward of a quasi-coherent sheaf quasi-coherent? Hartshorne proof

In the following we have $f:X \rightarrow Y$ morphism of schemes, $\mathcal{F}$ a quasi-coherent sheaf on $X$ and I am referring to proposition 5.8 page 115 in Hartshorne. To prove that the ...
16
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3answers
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Question on sheafification of a presheaf

In chapter 2 of GTM 52 by Robin Hartshone there are definition of presheaf and the associated sheaf of a given presheaf. I found that the definition of the sheafification is rather less natural and ...
16
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4answers
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What are the differences between a fiber bundle and a sheaf?

They are similar. Both contain a projection map and one can define sections, moreover the fiber of the fiber bundle is just like the stalk of the sheaf. But what are the differences between them? ...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

Gluing sheaves - can we realize $\mathcal{F}(W)$ as some kind of limit?

Let $X$ be a topological space and $\{U_i\}$ and open cover for $X$. Suppose we have sheaves $\mathcal{F}_i$ on $U_i$ and for each $i,j$ an isomorphism $\varphi_{ij} : \mathcal{F}_i|_{U_i \cap U_j} \...
15
votes
1answer
2k views

On the definition of the structure sheaf attached to $Spec A$

Let $A$ be a ring (commutative with $1$),if $X=Spec A$ we want to attach a sheaf of rings to $X$. If $f\in A$, $D(f)=X\setminus V(f)$ is an element of the base and we define $$\mathcal O_X(D(f)):=A_f$...
15
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1answer
561 views

Definition(s) of Stack

I've started to learn about stacks, and a question arose in my attempts of looking at the very definition of a stack by several points of view. First, I recall some background and fix the notation (...
15
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0answers
338 views

Quasicoherent sheaves as smallest abelian category containing locally free sheaves

On page 362 of Ravi Vakil's notes, the author says "It turns out that the main obstruction to vector bundles to be an abelian category is the failure of cokernels of maps of locally free sheaves - ...
14
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1answer
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Gaining insight into the Inverse Image Sheaf

Let $f: X \rightarrow Y$ be a continuous map of topological spaces and let $G$ be a sheaf of sets on $Y$. I am trying to understand the definition of the inverse image sheaf $f^{-1}G$ on $X$. This is ...
14
votes
1answer
2k views

Sheafification of a presheaf through the etale space

I have some problems to show that the following contruction defines a sheafification: Let $\mathcal F$ be a presheaf on $X$, and let $Et(\mathcal F)$ be the etale space associated to $\mathcal F$, ...
14
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1answer
700 views

When can stalks be glued to recover a sheaf?

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a sheaf over some topological space. The stalks are $\mathcal{F}_x= \underset{{x\in U}}{ \underrightarrow{\lim}} \mathcal{F}(U)$. Is there a special name for a sheaf that ...
14
votes
2answers
973 views

Inverse Limit of Sheaves

It is well-known that if you have an inverse system of abelian groups $(A_n)$ (this works in several other nice categories) in which all the maps are surjective (or at least satisfy the Mittag-Leffler ...
13
votes
2answers
3k views

Geometric interpretation and computation of the Normal bundle

My question concern the definition, geometric meaning, and usage of the normal bundle in algebraic geometry. Let $X$ be a nonsingular variety over an algebraically closed field $k$, and $Y\subseteq X$...
13
votes
2answers
769 views

Introduction to sheaves using categorical approach

When I first started to learn about sheaves, it was a very geometric approach. This is nice, but it seems like knowing more abstract categorical approach is very useful. For example, sheafification $...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Pullback commutes with dual for locally free sheaf of finite rank

Let $ f:X\rightarrow Y$ be a morphism of ringed spaces. Let $ \mathscr{E} $ be an $\mathcal{O}_Y$ module that is locally free of finite rank. I want to show that $ (f^{*}\mathscr{E})^\vee\cong f^*(\...
13
votes
3answers
3k views

Exterior power of a tensor product

Given 2 vector bundles $E$ and $F$ of ranks $r_1, r_2$, we can define $k$'th exterior power $\wedge^k (E \otimes F)$. Is there some simple way to decompose this into tensor products of various ...
13
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2answers
544 views

Hartshorne exercise III.6.2 (b) - $\mathfrak{Qco}(X)$ need not have enough projectives

Let $X=\mathbb P^1_k$, with $k$ an infinite field. Show that there does not exist a projective object $\mathcal P$ either in $\mathfrak{Qco}(X)$ or $\mathfrak{Coh}(X)$ together with a surjection $\...
13
votes
2answers
2k views

Stalks of the tensor product presheaf of two sheaves

Let $(X, \mathscr{O})$ be a ringed space and $\mathscr{F}, \mathscr{G}$ be sheaves of $\mathscr{O}$-modules on $X$. Define $\mathscr{H}(U) = \mathscr{F}(U) \otimes_{\mathscr{O}(U)} \mathscr{G}(U)$. ...
13
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5answers
1k views

What is an intuitive & concise explanation of a “sheaf?” [closed]

As I understand it, a sheaf is a very broad concept, but is most often used when referencing a function that maps algebraic structures (like rings) to points on a manifolds. Is a sheaf just yet ...
13
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1answer
1k views

Detail in the proof that sheaf cohomology = singular cohomology

Theorem: If $X$ is locally contractible, then the singular cohomology $H^k(X,\mathbb{Z})$ is isomorphic to the sheaf cohomology $H^k(X, \underline{\mathbb{Z}})$ of the locally constant sheaf of ...
13
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1answer
782 views

Definition of smooth manifold using sheaves.

While defining differential manifolds using the concept of sheaves wikipedia gives the following definition. A differentiable manifold (of class $C_k$) consists of a pair $(M, \mathcal{O}_M)$ where $...
13
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1answer
952 views

Calculation with Leray spectral sequence

The Leray spectral sequence is a cohomological spectral sequence of the form $$H^p(Y;R^q f_*(F)) \Longrightarrow H^{p+q}(X;F)$$ for abelian sheaves $F$ on a site $X$ and morphisms of sites $f : X \to ...
13
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1answer
534 views

Hartshorne Theorem 8.17

I can't understand the proof of theorem 8.17 from Hartshorne's "Algebraic Geometry". Namely, he says that we have an exact sequence $$ 0 \to \mathcal J'/\mathcal J'^2 \to \Omega_{X/k} \otimes \...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Locally constant sheaf but not constant

I am searching for a locally constant sheaf which is not constant. Locally constant means that there exists an open covering of the total space such that the sheaf restricted to each open set in the ...
12
votes
2answers
1k views

Why did Serre choose coherent sheaves?

First thing - I don't know any algebraic geometry. I'm trying to understand a little bit about quasi-coherent sheaves but not for the sake of AG, so please rely on as little knowledge as possible. ...
12
votes
3answers
745 views

Computing stalks: do direct limits behave like limits?

Suppose that $X$ is a topological space with a sheaf of rings $\mathcal{O}_X$. In general, the stalk at a point $p \in X$ is the direct limit of the rings $\mathcal{O}_X(U)$ for all open sets $U$ ...
12
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1answer
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Is there a coherent sheaf which is not a quotient of locally free sheaf?

Suppose $X$ is an algebraic variety, is there a coherent sheaf $\mathcal{F}$ on $X$ which is not a quotient of locally free sheaf? (Hartshorne II Cor 5.18 showed that on every projective variety, ...