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Questions tagged [sequences-and-series]

For questions concerning sequences and series. Typical questions concern, but are not limited to: recurrence relations, convergence tests, identifying sequences, identifying terms. For questions on finite sums, use the (summation) tag instead.

38
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4answers
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How to find area under sines without calculus?

In the section establishing that integrals and derivatives are inverse to each other, James Stewart's Calculus textbook says (pp325--pp326, Sec.4.3, 8Ed): When the French mathematician Gilles de ...
38
votes
2answers
1k views

Evaluating the sum of the series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{3} \binom{2n}{n}} $

Wolfram MathWorld states that $$ \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^{3} \binom{2n}{n}} = \frac{ \pi \sqrt{3}}{18} \Bigg[ \psi_{1} \left(\frac{1}{3} \right) - \psi_{1} \left(\frac{2}{3} \right) \Bigg]- \...
38
votes
1answer
1k views

Closed form for $\left(1+\left(\frac{1}{2}+\left(\frac{1}{3}+\left(\frac{1}{4}+\cdots\right)^2\right)^2\right)^2\right)^2$?

Nested squares seem to be more promising than nested radicals, since they give rational approximations and in principle can be expanded into a series. These two expressions converge numerically: $$\...
38
votes
2answers
939 views

Generating function solution to previous question $a_{n}=a_{\lfloor n/2\rfloor}+a_{\lfloor n/3 \rfloor}+a_{\lfloor n/6\rfloor}$

In attempting to answer this question, I reduced it to a seemingly simple generating functions question, but after days of work was unable to construct a proof. Since I do not have experience trying ...
37
votes
8answers
3k views

What's the value of $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{k^2}{k!}$?

For some series, it is easy to say whether it is convergent or not by the "convergence test", e.g., ratio test. However, it is nontrivial to calculate the value of the sum when the series converges. ...
37
votes
8answers
7k views

Can a sequence have infinitely many limits among its subsequences?

Suppose we have an extended real (countably) infinite sequence $(x_n)$. Then consider all of its possible subsequences $(x_{n_k})$. We could then consider the set $$A = \{a\in \overline{\mathbb{R}}:x_{...
37
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2answers
2k views

Proof that $\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty\frac{a_1a_2\cdots a_{k-1}}{(x+a_1)\cdots(x+a_k)}=\frac{1}{x}$ regarding $\zeta(3)$ and Apéry's proof

I recently printed a paper that asks to prove the "amazing" claim that for all $a_1,a_2,\dots$ $$\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{a_1a_2\cdots a_{k-1}}{(x+a_1)\cdots(x+a_k)}=\frac{1}{x}$$ and thus (probably) ...
37
votes
2answers
8k views

Proving that the sequence $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}$

Here is an exercise, on analysis which i am stuck. How do I prove that if $F_{n}(x)=\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n} \frac{\sin{kx}}{k}$, then the sequence $\{F_{n}(x)\}$ is boundedly convergent on $\mathbb{R}$...
37
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1answer
676 views

Does my “Prime Factor Look-and-Say” sequence always end?

I'm trying to create a challenge for PP&CG where the object will be to find the longest sequence in a given time, but I'm worried that there may be an infinite sequence that will ruin things. The ...
37
votes
1answer
742 views

Alternating series of primes

Consider the infinite alternating series: $2-3+5-7+11-13+17...$ taken over all primes. Partial sums at odd terms gives: $$2-3+5=2^2\\ 2-3+5-7+11=2^3\\ 2-3+5-7+11-13+\dotsb+23=2^4\\ \vdots$$ Is there a ...
36
votes
6answers
2k views

How to prove $\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{n^2}{2^n} = 6$?

I'd like to find out why \begin{align} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{n^2}{2^n} = 6 \end{align} I tried to rewrite it into a geometric series \begin{align} \sum_{n=0}^{\infty} \frac{n^2}{2^n} = \sum_{n=...
36
votes
2answers
7k views

Why do engineers use the Z-transform and mathematicians use generating functions?

For a (complex valued) sequence $(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ there is the associated generating function $$ f(z) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nz^n$$ and the $z$-Transform $$ Z(a)(z) = \sum_{n=0}^\infty a_nz^{-n}$...
36
votes
1answer
1k views

Prove ${\large\int}_0^\infty\frac{\ln x}{\sqrt{x}\ \sqrt{x+1}\ \sqrt{2x+1}}dx\stackrel?=\frac{\pi^{3/2}\,\ln2}{2^{3/2}\Gamma^2\left(\tfrac34\right)}$

I discovered the following conjecture by evaluating the integral numerically and then using some inverse symbolic calculation methods to find a possible closed form: $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\ln x}{\sqrt{...
36
votes
2answers
1k views

An integral identity from Ramanujan's notebooks

Browsing through Ramanujan's notebooks, I found the following identity, without proof of course (Notebook 1, p. 130): In other words (took me a while to realize that the lower integration bound is ...
36
votes
1answer
4k views

Finding the sum- $x+x^{2}+x^{4}+x^{8}+x^{16}\cdots$

If $S = x+x^{2}+x^{4}+x^{8}+x^{16}\cdots$ Find S. Note:This is not a GP series.The powers are in GP. My Attempts so far: 1)If $S(x)=x+x^{2}+x^{4}+x^{8}+x^{16}\cdots$ Then $$S(x)-S(x^{2})=x$$ ...
36
votes
3answers
1k views

A combinatorial proof of $n^n(n+2)^{n+1}>(n+1)^{2n+1}$?

The statement is simply that the sequence $\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n$ is increasing. Since the numbers $n^m$ have quite natural combinatorial interpretations, it makes me wonder if a ...
36
votes
3answers
633 views

Repeatedly taking mean values of non-empty subsets of a set: $2,\,3,\,5,\,15,\,875,\,…$

Consider the following iterative process. We start with a 2-element set $S_0=\{0,1\}$. At $n^{\text{th}}$ step $(n\ge1)$ we take all non-empty subsets of $S_{n-1}$, then for each subset compute the ...
36
votes
3answers
1k views

Interesting representation of $e^x$

So I discovered the following formula by using the Taylor series for $\ln (x+1)$ $$x= \ln (x+1)+\frac{1}{2}\ln(x^2+1)-\frac{1}{3}\ln(x^3+1)+\frac{1}{2}\ln(x^4+1)-\frac{1}{5}\ln(x^5+1)-\frac{1}{6}\ln(x^...
35
votes
6answers
3k views

Test of being a rational number for $(1-\frac13+\frac15-\frac17+\cdots)/(1+\frac14+\frac19+\frac1{16}+\cdots)$

Is the following expression a rational number? $$\frac{1-\dfrac13+\dfrac15-\dfrac17+\cdots}{1+\dfrac14+\dfrac19+\dfrac1{16}+\cdots}$$ My thoughts: The sum and product of two rational numbers is a ...
35
votes
4answers
977 views

Fibonacci numbers from $998999$

Is there a nice explanation of $$\frac{1}{998999}=0.000\,\underbrace{001}_{F_1}\,\underbrace{001}_{F_2}\,\underbrace{002}_{F_3}\,\underbrace{003}_{F_4}\,\underbrace{005}_{F_5}\,\underbrace{008}_{\...
35
votes
3answers
2k views

When you inscribe a triangle in a circle in a triangle in a circle in a triangle …

Here's a cute question I came up with. Start with a circle, and then choose three points $a$, $b$, and $c$ on the circle, and proceed as follows: Draw the triangle inside the circle with ...
35
votes
2answers
2k views

Prime numbers the rank of which is also a prime.

$127$ has an interesting property: It is the $31$st prime number and its rank ($31$) is also a prime. $31$ is the $11$th prime so its rank is also a prime. $11$ is also a prime number with a rank ($5$)...
35
votes
3answers
679 views

Does the sum $\sum_{n \geq 1} \frac{2^n\operatorname{mod} n}{n^2}$ converge?

I am somewhat a noob, and I don't recall my math preparation from college. I know that the sum $\sum_{n \geq 1} \frac{1}{n}$ is divergent and my question is if the sum $$\sum_{n \geq 1} \frac{2^n\...
35
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2answers
3k views

Possibility to simplify $\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{\pi }{{\sin \pi a}}} $

Is there any way to show that $$\sum\limits_{k = - \infty }^\infty {\frac{{{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}}}{{a + k}} = \frac{1}{a} + \sum\limits_{k = 1}^\infty {{{\left( { - 1} \right)}^k}\left( {\...
35
votes
2answers
1k views

Proving $\left(1-\frac13+\frac15-\frac17+\cdots\right)^2=\frac38\left(\frac1{1^2}+\frac1{2^2}+\frac1{3^2}+\frac1{4^2}+\cdots\right)$

The equality$$\left(1-\frac13+\frac15-\frac17+\cdots\right)^2=\frac38\left(\frac1{1^2}+\frac1{2^2}+\frac1{3^2}+\frac1{4^2}+\cdots\right)\tag{1}$$follows from the fact that the sum of the first series ...
35
votes
1answer
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Prove $\sum\limits_{n = 1}^\infty \frac{( - 1)^n}{\ln n + \sin n} $ is convergent.

Help prove the alternating series $\sum\limits_{n = 1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^n}{\ln n + \sin n}$ is convergent. $\frac 1 {\ln n + \sin n}$ is a decreasing sequence but it is not motonically decreasing. I ...
34
votes
10answers
8k views

Direct Proof that $1 + 3 + 5 + \cdots+ (2n - 1) = n\cdot n$

Prove that for all integers $n$, $n \geq 1$, $$1 + 3 + 5 + \cdots + (2n - 1) = n\cdot n$$ How would I go about proving this?
34
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9answers
83k views

Why is $\arctan(x)=x-x^3/3+x^5/5-x^7/7+\dots$?

Why is $\arctan(x)=x-x^3/3+x^5/5-x^7/7+\dots$? Can someone point me to a proof, or explain if it's a simple answer? What I'm looking for is the point where it becomes understood that trigonometric ...
34
votes
5answers
4k views

The 9 Billion Names of God

TLDR; I go on a math adventure and get overwhelmed :) Some background: My maths isn't great (I can't read notation) but I'm a competent programmer and reasonable problem solver. I've done the first ...
34
votes
3answers
980 views

Sequence of numbers with prime factorization $pq^2$

I've been considering the sequence of natural numbers with prime factorization $pq^2$, $p\neq q$; it begins 12, 18, 20, 28, 44, 45, ... and is A054753 in OEIS. I have two questions: What is the ...
34
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1answer
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Rudin's Principle of Mathematical Analysis Theorem 2.14 Question

$\mathbf{Theorem 2.14:}$ Let $A$ be the set of all sequences whose elements are the digits $0$ and $1$. Then A is uncountable, meaning there does not exist a one-to-one mapping of A onto $\mathbb{Z}$. ...
34
votes
5answers
2k views

Total distance traveled when visiting all rational numbers

My students found an old problem given in my school in 2007 (probably from a Honor Calculus class) and had been trying to solve for some time. Here is the problem: Prove or disprove: there exists a ...
34
votes
1answer
948 views

A series problem by Knuth

I came across the following problem, known as Knuth's Series which originally was an American Mathematical Monthly problem. Prove that $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \left(\frac{n^n}{n!e^n}-\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\...
34
votes
3answers
886 views

Convergence of a series with repeated sines

Show that the series $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\sin\big(\sin(n)\big)}{n}, $$ converges. More generally, show that for every $k\in\mathbb N$ the series $$ \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{\sigma_k(n)}{n}, $$ ...
34
votes
2answers
888 views

Show $(1+\frac{1}{3}-\frac{1}{5}-\frac{1}{7}+\frac{1}{9}+\frac{1}{11}-\cdots)^2 = 1+\frac{1}{9}+\frac{1}{25}+\frac{1}{49} + \cdots$

Last month I was calculating $\displaystyle \int_0^\infty \frac{1}{1+x^4}\, dx$ when I stumbled on the surprising identity: $$\sum_{n=0}^\infty (-1)^n\left(\frac{1}{4n+1} +\frac{1}{4n+3}\right) = \...
34
votes
2answers
3k views

Evaluating the infinite series $\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty(\sin\frac1{2n}-\sin\frac1{2n+1})$

I've been bored and playing with infinite series and came across in my book the following problem, namely to determine the convergence of: $$ \sum_{n = 1}^{\infty} \left[\sin\left(1 \over 2n\right) - ...
33
votes
4answers
4k views

Calculate sums of inverses of binomial coefficients

How to calculate the sum of sequence $$\frac{1}{\binom{n}{1}}+\frac{1}{\binom{n}{2}}+\frac{1}{\binom{n}{3}}+\cdots+\frac{1}{\binom{n}{n}}=?$$ How about its limit?
33
votes
6answers
2k views

Evaluate:: $ 2 \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n+1}\left( 1 + \frac12 +\cdots + \frac 1n\right) $

How to evaluate the series: $$ 2 \sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{(-1)^{n+1}}{n+1}\left( 1 + \frac12 + \cdots + \frac 1n\right) $$ According to Mathematica, this converges to $ (\log 2)^2 $.
33
votes
5answers
11k views

How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$

Problem : How to find the sum of this series : $1+\frac{1}{2}+ \frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{4}+\dots+\frac{1}{n}$ This is a Harmonic progression : So is this formula correct to sum the series : $\frac{(...
33
votes
2answers
4k views

Sum of reciprocals of numbers with certain terms omitted

I know that the harmonic series $1 + \frac12 + \frac13 + \frac14 + \cdots$ diverges. I also know that the sum of the inverse of prime numbers $\frac12 + \frac13 + \frac15 + \frac17 + \frac1{11} + \...
33
votes
5answers
845 views

Methods to find $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty}\frac1n\sum\limits_{k=1}^nn^{1/k} $

What would you suggest here? $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=1}^{n} n^{1/k} $$
33
votes
4answers
2k views

A closed form of $\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right)$

I am looking for a closed form of the following series \begin{equation} \mathcal{I}=\sum_{k=1}^\infty\frac{(-1)^{k+1}}{k!}\Gamma^2\left(\frac{k}{2}\right) \end{equation} I have no idea how to ...
33
votes
2answers
5k views

Definition of convergence of a nested radical $\sqrt{a_1 + \sqrt{a_2 + \sqrt{a_3 + \sqrt{a_4+\cdots}}}}$?

In my answer to the recent question Nested Square Roots, @GEdgar correctly raised the issue that the proof is incomplete unless I show that the intermediate expressions do converge to a (finite) limit....
33
votes
2answers
710 views

Closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n\left(1+\sqrt[2^n]{2}\right)}$

Here is another infinite sum I need you help with: $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty\frac{1}{2^n\left(1+\sqrt[2^n]{2}\right)}.$$ I was told it could be represented in terms of elementary functions and integers.
33
votes
3answers
7k views

Multiples of an irrational number forming a dense subset

Say you picked your favorite irrational number $q$ and looking at $S = \{nq: n\in \mathbb{Z} \}$ in $\mathbb{R}$, you chopped off everything but the decimal of $nq$, leaving you with a number in $[0,1]...
33
votes
3answers
898 views

On calculating $\int_0^1\ln(1-x^2)\;{\mathrm dx}$ — where is the mistake?

I've seen the integral $\displaystyle \int_0^1\ln(1-x^2)\;{dx}$ on a thread in this forum and I tried to calculate it by using power series. I wrote the integral as a sum then again as an integral. ...
33
votes
1answer
649 views

Is this sequence unbounded?

Problem. Suppose that a sequence $\{a_n\}_{(n\ge 1)}$ is a strict increasing sequence of positive integers such that $$\forall i,\phantom{;}j(i\neq j);\phantom{;}a_i \not\mid a_j$$ Prove that $a_{n+1}-...
33
votes
1answer
600 views

Does this infinite primes snake-product converge?

Form an infinite product of prime ratios as follows. Start with $$ \frac{2}{3}\cdot\frac{7}{5}=\frac{14}{15} \approx 0.93 \;. $$ Continue alternating a fraction $< 1$ times the next fraction $>1$...
33
votes
1answer
723 views

Proving the inequality $\frac{\log (1)}{1!}+\frac{\log ^2(2)}{2!}+\frac{\log^3(3)}{3!}+\cdots> \frac{\pi }{4}$

How to prove this inequality? $$\frac{\log (1)}{1!}+\frac{\log ^2(2)}{2!}+\frac{\log^3(3)}{3!}+\cdots> \frac{\pi }{4}$$ The left side looks vaguely like the series for $\exp(x)$: the terms ...
33
votes
2answers
565 views

Proof of the unbounded-ness of $\sum_{n\geq 1}\frac{1}{n}\sin\frac{x}{n}$

For any $x\in\mathbb{R}$, the series $$ \sum_{n\geq 1}\tfrac{1}{n}\,\sin\left(\tfrac{x}{n}\right) $$ is trivially absolutely convergent. It defines a function $f(x)$ and I would like to show that $f(x)...