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Questions tagged [separation-axioms]

Separation axioms are properties of topological space which, roughly speaking, say in what way two points, a point and a closed set, or two closed sets can be "separated". Most important are $T_0$-spaces, $T_1$-spaces, Hausdorff, regular, completely regular and normal spaces.

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$X$ is Hausdorff if and only if the diagonal of $X\times X$ is closed

Let $X$ be a topological space. The diagonal of $X \times X$ is the subset $$D = \{(x,x)\in X\times X\mid x \in X\}.$$ Show that $X$ is Hausdorff if and only if $D$ is closed in $X \times X$. First,...
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$X/{\sim}$ is Hausdorff if and only if $\sim$ is closed in $X \times X$

$X$ is a Hausdorff space and $\sim$ is an equivalence relation. If the quotient map is open, then $X/{\sim}$ is a Hausdorff space if and only if $\sim$ is a closed subset of the product space $X \...
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$f,g$ continuous from $X$ to $Y$. if they are agree on a dense set $A$ of $X$ then they agree on $X$

Problem: Suppose $f$ and $g$ are two continuous functions such that $f: X \to Y $ and $g : X \to Y $. $Y$ is a a Hausdorff space. Suppose $f(x) = g(x) $ for all $x \in A \subseteq X $ where $A$ ...
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Why are ordered spaces normal? [collecting proofs]

Greets This is a problem I wanted to solve for a long time, and finally did some days ago. So I want to ask people here at MSE to show as many different answers to this problem as possible. I will ...
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Question about quotient of a compact Hausdorff space

I am reading the book 'Algebraic Topology' by Tammo Tom Dieck. On page 12 in the proposition 1.4.4 he states that : Let $X$ be a compact Hausdorff space and $f : X \rightarrow Y$ be a quotient ...
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Non-T1 Space: Is the set of limit points closed?

I have shown that the set of limit points in $T_1$-space is closed, and the proof uses the $T_1$ axiom, so I was wondering: Given $X,$ not necessarily $T_1,$ and any $A\subset X,$ is it necessarily ...
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Every infinite Hausdorff space has an infinite discrete subspace

I want to show that any infinite Hausdorff space contains an infinite discrete subspace. I am motivated by the role of $\mathbb N$ in $\mathbb R$. We know that if a Hausdorff space is finite, then it ...
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Is it true that every normal countable topological space is metrizable?

I've been reading about and working on various proofs about metrizabililty. I'm having trouble answering the following question: Is it true that every normal countable topological space is metrizable? ...
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Does this property characterize a space as Hausdorff?

As a result of this question, I've been thinking about the following condition on a topological space $Y$: For every topological space $X$, $E\subseteq X$, and continuous maps $f,g\colon X\to Y$, ...
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Construction of a Hausdorff space from a topological space

Let $X$ be a topological space. Is there a Hausdorff space $HX$ and a continuous function $i:X\rightarrow HX$ such that for any Hausdorff space $A$ and a continuous function $j:X\rightarrow A$, there ...
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Prove that a separable metric space is Lindelöf without proving it is second-countable

This a problem from my exam: Prove that a separable metric space is a Lindelöf space I know that a separable metric space is second-countable, and second-countable implies the Lindelöf property. ...
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A finite Hausdorff space is discrete

Theorem: $X$ is a finite Hausdorff. Show that the topology is discrete. My attempt: $X$ is Hausdorff then $T_2 \implies T_1$ Thus for any $x \in X$ we have $\{x\}$ is closed. Thus $X \setminus \{x\}$ ...
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GRE 9367 #62: Prove $X=[0,1]$ in lower limit topology ($[a,b)$) is not compact, is Hausdorff and is disconnected.

GRE9367 #62 Ian Coley's solution: Sean Sovine's solution: Prove $X$ is not compact. My first proof was similar to Ian Coley's, but I came up with another proof: If $X$ is compact, ...
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1answer
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Show that any metrizable space $X$ is Hausdorff

I wish to show that any metrizable space $(X,\mathcal{T})$ is Hausdorff Proof attempt: Let $d$ be the metric that generates the topology on $X$. Pick two points $x,y \in X$, we wish to produce two ...
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1answer
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The product of Hausdorff spaces is Hausdorff

I'm confused how it can be true that the product of an infinite number of Hausdorff spaces $X_\alpha$ can be Hausdorff. If $\prod_{\alpha \in J} X_\alpha$ is a product space with product topology, ...
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Is every linear ordered set normal in its order topology?

I'm trying to prove (or disprove) that every linear ordered set $(X, <_X)$ is normal in its order topology. I was able to prove $(X,<_X)$ is hausdorff, simply by taking two open intervals with ...
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If two continuous maps into a Hausdorff space agree on a dense subset, they are identically equal [duplicate]

Let $f, g : X \to Y$ be continuous functions. Assume that $Y$ is Hausdorff and that there exists a dense subset $D$ of $X$ such that $f(x) = g(x)$ for all $x \in D$. Prove that $f(x) = g(x)$ for all $...
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Compactness and Strictly Finer Topologies.

If $(A,\tau{_1})$ is a compact Hausdorff space and $\tau{_2}$ is a strictly finer topology on $X$, can $(A, \tau_{2})$ be compact?
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1answer
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What topological spaces satisfy yet another property involving relatively compact sets?

This is a follow-up to my questions here and here. A subset of a topological space is called relatively compact if its closure is compact. Let's call a sequence $(U_n)$ of open sets a bounding ...
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1answer
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Why are these two definitions of a perfectly normal space equivalent?

I've been skimming through some topology textbooks recently. Some sources, (such as Munkres' Topology and Willard's General Topology) define a space $(X,\mathcal{T})$ to be perfectly normal iff $X$ is ...
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2answers
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Non-orientable 1-dimensional (non-hausdorff) manifold

Is there any nice example of a 1-dimensional non-hausdorff manifold that is not oriented? I have tried the line with two origins, but maybe something more exotic is needed?
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1answer
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When is a quotient by closed equivalence relation Hausdorff

Let us say for an arbitrary topological space $X$ that it has property $\dagger$ if for any closed equivalence relation $\sim$ on $X$ (closed as a subset of $X^2$), the quotient space $X/{\sim}$ is ...
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How big can a separable Hausdorff space be?

It is just an idea (might be wrong) but, i think that if a Hausdorff space, say $X$, contains too many elements, then a countable subset cannot be dense in it. Does there exist a cardinality that any ...
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When is $C_0(X)$ separable?

Recall that a compact Hausdorff space is second countable if and only if the Banach space $C(X)$ of continuous functions on $X$ is separable. I'm looking for a similar criterion for locally compact ...
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Examples for subspace of a normal space which is not normal

Are there any simple examples of subspaces of a normal space which are not normal? I know closed subspace of a normal space is normal, but open subspace in most cases which I can think of are also ...
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Topology on $\mathbb{R}$ strictly coarser (resp. finer) than the usual one which is still Hausdorff (resp. connected)

The following are simple observations. Suppose $\mathcal{T}_1,\mathcal{T}_2$ are two topologies on a set $X$ such that $\mathcal{T}_1$ is finer than $\mathcal{T}_2$. If $( X ,\mathcal{T}_2 )...
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2answers
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Topological groups are completely regular

I am studying topological groups, and I have been able to do quite a lot on my own by proving the propositions in this link on my own, but when I read up wikipedia that topological groups are all ...
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2answers
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What application is there for a non-Hausdorff topological space?

I'm learning basic topology and as I understand it, a good way to intuit what an open set is, is that it determines which elements are near each other. However, in a non-Hausdorff space, it would be ...
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Why study non-T1 topological spaces?

I can understand (somewhat) why one would want to study non-Hausdorff topologies, since for example the Zariski topology is so important to algebraists, and the weak topology generated by lower ...
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1answer
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Normal space- equivalent condition: $\forall U, V$ - open $: U \cup V = X \ \ \ \exists F \subset U \ , G \subset V$ - closed $: F \cup G = X$

Could you help me prove that $X$ is normal $\iff$ for all open $U, V$such that $U \cup V = X$ there are closed $F \subset U,\ G \subset V,\ F \cup G = X?$ I've been trying to prove it using other ...
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Prove that $Y$ is Hausdorff iff $X$ is Hausdorff and $A$ is a closed subset of $X$

Let $X$ be a topological space and $A$ a subset of $X$. On $X\times\{0,1\}$ define the partition composed of the pairs $\{(a,0),(a,1)\}$ for $a\in A$, and of the singletons $\{(x,i)\}$ if $x\in X\...
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A strong Hausdorff condition

Is the following strong form of Hausdorff equivalent to usual Hausdorff? $X$ is strong Hausdorff if given distinct elements $x,y$ in $X$ there are open sets $U,V \subseteq X$ with $x \subseteq U$, ...
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1answer
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Is a metric space perfectly normal?

I typically like to practice my knowledge on a specific concept by doing proofs using one definition of a term, and then doing the same proofs using an equivalent definition (without inducing the ...
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1answer
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Every minimal Hausdorff space is H-closed

A Hausdorff topological space $(X,\mathcal T)$ is called H-closed or absolutely closed if it is closed in any Hausdorff space, which contains $X$ as a subspace.$\newcommand{\ol}[1]{\overline{#1}}\...
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1answer
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$[0,1)\times[0,1)$ (lower limit topology) is a regular, but not a normal topological space

Let $X=[0,1)\times[0,1)$, $\tau$ its topology with base $$\beta = \{ [a,b)\times[c,d): 0 \leq a < b \leq 1, 0 \leq c < d \leq 1 \}\;.$$ Please help me prove, that it is regular, but not a ...
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1answer
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Finer topologies on a compact Hausdorff space

If we have such topological space $(X,\mathcal{T})$ that it is compact and Hausdorff, then we can say that for any other topology $\mathcal{H}$ on $X$ such that $\mathcal{T}\subseteq\mathcal{H}$, the ...
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1answer
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Is a covering space of a completely regular space also completely regular

I'm trying to solve a problem in Munkres' Topology book. Let $p: E \rightarrow B$ be a covering map and suppose that $B$ is completely regular (for any closed subset $A$ and disjoint point $a$ there ...
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1answer
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Product of $T_1$ spaces is $T_1$

I am trying to prove that the product of $T_1$ spaces is also $T_1$. Here is a proof, is it correct? $\{ X_i \}_{i \in I}$ are T1 $\Rightarrow$ $\prod_{i \in I} X_i$ is T1 Proof: Let $\bar{x} =...
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0answers
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Is the Alexandroff double circle compact and Hausdorff?

I recently encountered the Alexandroff double circle. The underlying set is $C = C_1 \cup C_2$, where $C_i$ is the circle of radius $i$ and centre $0$ in the complex plane. The basic open sets are: $\...
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Add a point to the Moore plane to get a normal space [duplicate]

I've got the following question, and I'm having trouble with it. I was hoping that someone here could help me. Show that by adding one point to the Moore plane $\mathbf{M}$ one can obtain a normal ...
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$X$ second countable locally compact Hausdorff implies $C(X)$ separable?

In the post When is $C_0(X)$ separable? , it is argued that if $X$ is second countable and locally compact Hausdorff, then $C_{0}(X)$ is separable. Is it also true that $C(X)$ is separable under the ...
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1answer
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Normality is not hereditary

For $(S,\tau_{disc})$ denote $A(S) = S \cup \{\infty_S\}$ as its onepoint compactification. Let $S,T$ be discrete spaces. Then clearly $X := A(S) \times A(T)$ is compact Hausdorff since each onepoint ...
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1answer
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Is $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ endowed with the box topology completely normal (or hereditarily normal)?

Just out of curiosity, I'd like to know more properties of box topology. I found Is $\mathbb{R}^\omega$ a completely normal space, in the box topology? quite interesting, but unfortunately, it hasn't ...
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1answer
57 views

What topological spaces satisfy a property involving relatively compact sets?

A subset of a topological space is called relatively compact if its closure is compact. My question is, what kind of topological spaces satisfy the following property: for every relatively compact ...
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1answer
39 views

What topological spaces satisfy another property involving relatively compact sets?

This is a follow-up to my question here. A subset of a topological space is called relatively compact if its closure is compact. My question is, what kind of topological spaces satisfy the following ...
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1answer
1k views

A closed subspace of a locally compact Hausdorff space is also a locally compact Hausdorff space.

Let $X$ be a locally compact Hausdorff space, and $A$ a closed subspace. Show that $A$ is a locally compact Hausdorff space. Here is what I have for a proof. Will I need to clarify anything else? ...
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1answer
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Let X be a T1 space, and show that X is normal if and only if each neighbourhood of a closed set F contains the closure of some neighbourhood of F

Let $X$ be a $T_1$-space, and show that $X$ is normal if and only if each neighbourhood of a closed set $F$ contains the closure of some neighbourhood of $F$. I saw this statement in the book ...
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If every continuous $f:X\to X$ has $\text{Fix}(f)\subseteq X$ closed, must $X$ be Hausdorff?

Given a function $f:X\to X$, let $\text{Fix}(f)=\{x\in X\mid x=f(x)\}$. In a recent comment, I wondered whether $X$ is Hausdorff $\iff$ $\text{Fix}(f)\subseteq X$ is closed for every continuous $f:X\...
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Looking For a Neat Proof of the Fact that the Grassmannian Manifold is Hausdorff

$\newcommand{\R}{\mathbf R}$ Let $V$ be an $n$-dimensional vector space and $k$ be an integer less than $n$. A $k$-frame in $V$ is an injective linear map $T:\R^k\to V$. Let the set of all the $k$-...
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1answer
459 views

Give an example of a non compact Hausdorff space such that $\Delta$ is closed but $Y$ is not Hausdorff

Suppose $X$ is compact Hausdorff space and $f : X \to Y$ be a quotient map. Then it is well known that $Y$ is Hausdorff iff $\Delta =\{(x,y) \mid f(x)=f(y) \}$ is closed in $X \times X$. For example ...