Questions tagged [relations]

For questions concerning partial orders, equivalence relations, properties of relations (transitive, symmetric, etc), a composition of relations, or anything else concerning a relation on a set.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
72
votes
6answers
17k views

Why isn't reflexivity redundant in the definition of equivalence relation?

An equivalence relation is defined by three properties: reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity. Doesn't symmetry and transitivity implies reflexivity? Consider the following argument. For any $a$ ...
4
votes
2answers
426 views

Examples and Counterexamples of Relations which Satisfy Certain Properties

Definition: Given a set $X$, a relation $R$ on $X$ is any subset of $X\times X$. A relation $R$ on $X$ is said to be reflexive if $(x,x) \in R$ for all $x \in X$, irreflexive if $(x,x) \not\in R$ ...
20
votes
4answers
18k views

Understanding equivalence class, equivalence relation, partition

I'm having difficulty grasping a couple of set theory concepts, specifically concepts dealing with relations. Here are the ones I'm having trouble with and their definitions. 1) The collection of ...
16
votes
6answers
30k views

Number of relations that are both symmetric and reflexive

Consider a non-empty set A containing n objects. How many relations on A are both symmetric and reflexive? The answer to this is $2^p$ where $p=$ $n \choose 2$. However, I dont understand why this is ...
144
votes
15answers
46k views

Are there real-life relations which are symmetric and reflexive but not transitive?

Inspired by Halmos (Naive Set Theory) . . . For each of these three possible properties [reflexivity, symmetry, and transitivity], find a relation that does not have that property but does have the ...
9
votes
2answers
30k views

If a relation is symmetric and transitive, will it be reflexive? [duplicate]

Possible Duplicate: Why isn't reflexivity redundant in the definition of equivalence relation? We had a heated discussion in class today and i still cant be sure if the professor was any good ...
7
votes
1answer
8k views

Number of reflexive relations defined on a set A with n elements

Problem: If a set $A$ has $n$ elements in it, how many reflexive relations can be defined on it? My solution Is the answer ...
2
votes
4answers
36k views

Can a relation be both symmetric and antisymmetric; or neither? [closed]

Can some relation be at the same time symmetric and antisymmetric? And, can a relation be neither one nor the other? Please give me an example for your answer.
0
votes
3answers
278 views

$x\sim y\iff x^2\equiv y^2\pmod{\!6}$ is an equivalence relation.

Question 1: Let $x,y \in S$ such that $x\sim y$ if $x^2 =y^2\pmod6 $. Show that $\sim$ is an equivalence relation. This is what I tried: Reflexive: $x^2\pmod6 = x^2$ implying $x\sim x$ Symmetry: ...
5
votes
3answers
2k views

The “Empty Tuple” or “0-Tuple”: Its Definition and Properties

(I would like to link to a previous discussion on the subject: What is A Set Raised to the 0 Power? (In Relation to the Definition of a Nullary Operation)) In axiomatic (ZFC) set theory, we define ...
14
votes
3answers
5k views

Sole minimal element: Why not also the minimum?

A minimal element (any number thereof) of a partially ordered set $S$ is an element that is not greater than any other element in $S$. The minimum (at most one) of a partially ordered set $S$ is an ...
12
votes
4answers
50k views

How to check whether a relation is transitive from the matrix representation?

$$\begin{bmatrix}1&0&1\\0&1&0\\1&0&1\end{bmatrix}$$ This is a matrix representation of a relation on the set $\{1, 2, 3\}$. I have to determine if this relation matrix is ...
13
votes
7answers
62k views

Example of a relation that is symmetric and transitive, but not reflexive [duplicate]

Can you give an example of a relation that is symmetric and transitive, but not reflexive? By definition, $R$, a relation in a set $X$, is reflexive if and only if $\forall x\in X$, $x\,R\,x$. $R$ ...
11
votes
4answers
41k views

How Many Symmetric Relations on a Finite Set?

How many symmetric relations are there for an $n$-element set? Thank you.
22
votes
5answers
107k views

Antisymmetric Relations

Given a set $\{1,2,3,4\}$, how is the following relation $R$ antisymmetric? $$R = \{(1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4)\}$$ Note: Antisymmetric is the idea that if $(a,b)$ is in $R$ and $(b,a)$ is in $R$, then $...
12
votes
1answer
27k views

Prove that the empty relation is Transitive, Symmetric but not Reflexive

Question: Let $R$ be a relation on a set $A$. Prove that if $A$ is non-empty, the empty relation is not reflexive on $A$. the empty relation is symmetric and transitive for every set $A$....
6
votes
3answers
9k views

How many transitive relations on a set of $n$ elements?

If a set has $n$ elements, how many transitive relations are there on it? For example if set $A$ has $2$ elements then how many transitive relations. I know the total number of relations is $16$ but ...
4
votes
5answers
12k views

Equivalence relation $(a,b) R (c,d) \Leftrightarrow a + d = b + c$

Suppose $A$ is the set composed of all ordered pairs of positive integers. Let $R$ be the relation defined on $A$ where $(a,b) R (c,d)$ means that $a + d = b + c$. (a) Prove that $R$ is an ...
8
votes
3answers
22k views

How to find the number of anti-symmetric relations?

I know that given a set $A = \{1, 2, 3, ... , n\}$, the total number of relations on $A$ is $$2^{n^2}$$ The number of reflexive relations is $$2^{n^2 - n}$$ The number of symmetric relations is $$2^{{...
10
votes
3answers
3k views

Is statistical dependence transitive?

Take any three random variables $X_1$, $X_2$, and $X_3$. Is it possible for $X_1$ and $X_2$ to be dependent, $X_2$ and $X_3$ to be dependent, but $X_1$ and $X_3$ to be independent? Is it possible ...
9
votes
3answers
20k views

Whats the difference between Antisymmetric and reflexive? (Set Theory/Discrete math)

Antisymmetric: $\forall x\forall y[ ((x,y)\in R\land (y, x) \in R) \to x= y]$ reflexive: $\forall x[x∈A\to (x, x)\in R]$ What really is the difference between the two? Wouldn't all antisymmetric ...
4
votes
3answers
11k views

Why is $y = \sqrt{x-4}$ a function? and $y = \sqrt{4 - x^2}$ should be a circle

So why is it a function, even though for example $x = 8$; you'll have $y = +2$ and $y = -2$. It'll fail the vertical line test. But every textbook considers it as a function. Did I misunderstand ...
1
vote
0answers
305 views

Example relations: pairwise versus mutual

There are by now several questions on math.se asking about pairwise versus mutual relations, eg: • When does “pairwise” strengthen and when does it weaken? • Relation: pairwise and mutually • ...
1
vote
1answer
815 views

Define a relation and find its equivalence classes.

Define a relation $\sim$ on $\Bbb{N}$ as follows. For any $a,b∈\Bbb N$, $a\sim b$ if and only if $ab$ is a perfect square. Show that $\sim$ is an equivalence relation. What are the equivalence classes?...
4
votes
7answers
942 views

The map $f:\mathbb{Z}_3 \to \mathbb{Z}_6$ given by $f(x + 3\mathbb{Z}) = x + 6\mathbb{Z}$ is not well-defined

By naming an equivalence class in the domain that is assigned at least two different values prove that the following is not a well defined function. $$f : \Bbb Z_{3} \to \Bbb Z_{6} \;\;\;\text{ ...
2
votes
2answers
4k views

Proving this relation is transitive

Let $r$ be a relation on $A \times A$ such that $(a,b) r (c,d) \iff ad = bc.$ How can I show that this relation is transitive, ie. $(a, b)r(c,d)$ and $(c,d)r(e, f) \implies (a,b)r(e,f)$? I tried to ...
1
vote
3answers
73 views

some relation $R$ is defined on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $xRy \iff x = 7^{k}y,$ for some $k\in \mathbb{Z}$. Prove that $R$ is an equivalence relation

some relation $R$ is defined on $\mathbb{R}$ such that $xRy \ \iff \ x = 7^{k}y,$ for some $k\in \mathbb{Z}$. Prove that $R$ is an equivalence relation I'm confused with proving that it is symmetric ...
19
votes
3answers
65k views

Is my understanding of antisymmetric and symmetric relations correct?

So I'm having a hard time grasping how a relation can be both antisymmetric and symmetric, or neither. Are my examples correct? symmetric & antisymmetric ...
13
votes
3answers
28k views

Is the relation $R = \emptyset$ is it reflexive, symmetric and transitive ? Why?

Can someone help me understand the properties of the relation $R = \emptyset$ ? It looks to me like it's not reflexive, since there is no element related to any element, so the elements are not ...
14
votes
1answer
812 views

Can we extend the definition of a continuous function to binary relations?

Let $X,Y$ be topological spaces. A function $\phi:X\to Y$ is continuous iff for any open subset $A\subseteq Y,$ the preimage $\phi^{-1}(A)$ is open in $X.$ We could similarly define a relation $\rho\...
6
votes
3answers
10k views

Finding all posets on a set

Suppose I have a set $A$ such that $A$ = $\{1, 2, 3, 4, 5\}$ (or $A$ = $\{1, 2, 3, 4\}$ or $A$ = $\{1, 2, 3\}$ or any other finite small set). How can I find the total number of partial order ...
4
votes
2answers
2k views

Distinguishing equality and isomorphism as relations

Is this relational characterization of equality in Wikipedia accepted? The identity relation is the archetype of the more general concept of an equivalence relation on a set: those binary ...
-2
votes
2answers
355 views

How to prove reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity for the following relation? [closed]

I would like to know how to prove reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity for $\sim$ according to the following definition: Suppose $\sim$ is defined on the set of the integers as follows : $a\sim b$...
5
votes
7answers
1k views

Branch of math studying relations

There are many branches of mathematics (analysis, algebra, group theory, logic, ...). Now, I'm interested in relations and their special kinds (like equivalence relation) and their properties. I'd ...
5
votes
2answers
226 views

Equivalence relations on classes instead of sets

Can someone please explain to me how to deal with equivalence relations on classes instead of sets? Is there some sort of generalisation of relations? Thank you
3
votes
1answer
473 views

How to prove partition into $A_k=\{2^kn | n \in \mathbb N \text{ and }n\text{ is odd}\}$

I am having trouble showing that this is a partition: $\{A_k|k\in \mathbb N \cup \{0\}\}$ where each $A_k=\{2^kn | n \in \mathbb N \text{ and n - odd}\}$ is a partition of the natural numbers. I ...
6
votes
2answers
2k views

Cardinality of relations set

I was thinking about cardinality of all symmetric relations, for example in $\mathbb{Z}$. I know, that if I have finite set (which contains $n$ elements), there are $2^{\frac{n(n+1)}{2}}$ symmetric ...
5
votes
2answers
1k views

Existence of the transitive closure for sets

How can I prove that the transitive close of an arbitrary set $X$ exists? A set $X$ is called transitive if $\in$ is transitiv on it. The transitive closure $\mathrm{tcl}(X)$ of an arbitrary set $X$...
4
votes
3answers
208 views

What's the name for the equivalence induced by a function on its domain?

Any function $f$ with domain $X$ induces an equivalence relation on $X$, with classes $$\{f^{-1}(\{y\})\,:\, y \in \operatorname{im}f\;\} .$$ Is there a name for this equivalence? Thanks!
0
votes
2answers
64 views

How many functions are possible to create in this example?

Let $A = \{ 1,2,3,4 \}$ Let $F$ be a set of all functions from $A \to A$. Let $S$ be a relation defined by : $\forall f,g \in F$ $fSg \iff f(i) = g(i)$ for some $i \in A$ Let $h: A \to A$ be the ...
16
votes
4answers
56k views

Is an anti-symmetric and asymmetric relation the same? Are irreflexive and anti reflexive the same?

I don't understand the difference between an anti symmetric and asymmetric relation. From my understanding, it is asymmetric if there is not any element where: if (x,y) (y,x). But what if you have ...
11
votes
2answers
1k views

Can we extend the definition of a homomorphism to binary relations?

This is going to be quite a long post. The actual questions will be at the end of it in section "Questions." INTRODUCTION After receiving an answer to this question about extending the definition of ...
22
votes
10answers
4k views

Why is belonging not transitive?

From Halmos's Naive Set Theory, section 1: Observe, along the same lines, that inclusion is transitive, whereas belonging is not. Everyday examples, involving, for instance, super-organizations ...
6
votes
4answers
2k views

Is Russell's paradox really about sets as such?

It seems to me that Russell's paradox rather is a "paradox" concerning relations. Suppose we want to construct a graph (with finite or infinite number of nodes) and want some node to be adjacent ...
12
votes
2answers
384 views

When does “pairwise” strengthen and when does it weaken?

"Pairwise disjoint" is stronger than "disjoint"; it sometimes happens that $\displaystyle\bigcap\limits_{i\in I} A_i=\varnothing$ but for every $i,j$, or at least for some, one has $A_i \cap A_j\ne\...
9
votes
3answers
39k views

How many equivalence relations on a set with 4 elements.

Let S be a set containing 4 elements (I choose {$a,b,c,d$}). How many possible equivalence relations are there? So I started by making a list of the possible relations: {$(a,a)(a,b)(a,c)(a,d)(b,a)(b,...
7
votes
3answers
5k views

Is the empty set partially ordered ? Also, is it totally ordered?

I am not sure on how to go about this. Please provide clear explanations.
2
votes
1answer
665 views

Direct products in the category Rel

Please describe direct products in the category Rel.
10
votes
4answers
13k views

Can a relation with less than 3 elements be considered transitive?

The generalize rule for a transitive relation is a -> b b -> c therefor a -> c If an element has less than 3 elements, can it still be transitive? If ...
9
votes
2answers
615 views

Counting non-isomorphic relations

On a set $X$ of $n$ elements, how many non-isomorphic relations are there? The number of relations on a set of $n$ elements is $|\mathcal{P}(X \times X)|=2^{n^2}$, but is there any way to give a ...

1
2 3 4 5 6