# Questions tagged [real-analysis]

For questions about real analysis, a branch of mathematics dealing with limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property and related analysis topics, such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

87,792 questions
27k views

### How can you prove that a function has no closed form integral?

I've come across statements in the past along the lines of "function $f(x)$ has no closed form integral", which I assume means that there is no combination of the operations: addition/subtraction ...
39k views

### Is it true that $0.999999999\dots=1$?

I'm told by smart people that $$0.999999999\dots=1$$ and I believe them, but is there a proof that explains why this is?
15k views

12k views

### Why can't calculus be done on the rational numbers?

I was once told that one must have a notion of the reals to take limits of functions. I don't see how this is true since it can be written for all functions from the rationals to the rationals, which ...
6k views

### Calculating the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$ without using complex analysis

Suppose that we do not know anything about the complex analysis (numbers). In this case, how to calculate the following integral in closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\cos\;x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$$
12k views

### Is $[0,1]$ a countable disjoint union of closed sets?

Can you express $[0,1]$ as a countable disjoint union of closed sets, other than the trivial way of doing this?
2k views

18k views

### Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$

Compute $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$$
13k views

### Continuous bijection from $(0,1)$ to $[0,1]$

Does there exist a continuous bijection from $(0,1)$ to $[0,1]$? Of course the map should not be a proper map.
27k views

### Lebesgue integral basics

I'm having trouble finding a good explanation of the Lebesgue integral. As per the definition, it is the expectation of a random variable. Then how does it model the area under the curve? Let's take ...
9k views

### Comparing $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ without calculating them

How can I calculate, without calculator or similar device, the values of $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ in order to compare them?
14k views

### Construction of a Borel set with positive but not full measure in each interval

I was wondering how one can construct a Borel set that doesn't have full measure on any interval of the real line but does have positive measure everywhere. To be precise, if $\mu$ denotes Lebesgue ...
4k views

### How to prove that $\frac{\zeta(2) }{2}+\frac{\zeta (4)}{2^3}+\frac{\zeta (6)}{2^5}+\frac{\zeta (8)}{2^7}+\cdots=1$?

How can one prove this identity? $$\frac{\zeta(2) }{2}+\frac{\zeta (4)}{2^3}+\frac{\zeta (6)}{2^5}+\frac{\zeta (8)}{2^7}+\cdots=1$$ There is a formula for $\zeta$ values at even integers, but it ...
7k views

### How to evaluate $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{x^{-\mathfrak{i}a}}{x^2+bx+1} \,\mathrm{d}x$ using complex analysis?

We were told today by our teacher (I suppose to scare us) that in certain schools for physics in Soviet Russia there was as an entry examination the following integral given \int\limits_{0}^{\...
### Direct proof that $\pi$ is not constructible
Is there a direct proof that $\pi$ is not constructible, that is, that squaring the circle cannot be done by rule and compass? Of course, $\pi$ is not constructible because it is transcendental and ...