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Questions tagged [real-analysis]

For questions about real analysis, a branch of mathematics dealing with limits, convergence of sequences, construction of the real numbers, least upper bound property and related analysis topics, such as continuity, differentiation, and integration through the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus.

252
votes
25answers
39k views

Is it true that $0.999999999\dots=1$?

I'm told by smart people that $$0.999999999\dots=1$$ and I believe them, but is there a proof that explains why this is?
137
votes
7answers
32k views

How to define a bijection between $(0,1)$ and $(0,1]$?

How to define a bijection between $(0,1)$ and $(0,1]$? Or any other open and closed intervals? If the intervals are both open like $(-1,2)\text{ and }(-5,4)$ I do a cheap trick (don't know if that'...
256
votes
7answers
27k views

How can you prove that a function has no closed form integral?

I've come across statements in the past along the lines of "function $f(x)$ has no closed form integral", which I assume means that there is no combination of the operations: addition/subtraction ...
101
votes
2answers
23k views

Examples of bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$

Could any one give an example of a bijective map from $\mathbb{R}^3\rightarrow \mathbb{R}$? Thank you.
188
votes
9answers
14k views

Evaluating $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} e^{-n} \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$

I'm supposed to calculate: $$\lim_{n\to\infty} e^{-n} \sum_{k=0}^{n} \frac{n^k}{k!}$$ By using W|A, i may guess that the limit is $\frac{1}{2}$ that is a pretty interesting and nice result. I ...
97
votes
2answers
36k views

Limit of $L^p$ norm

Could someone help me prove that given a finite measure space $(X, \mathcal{M}, \sigma)$ and a measurable function $f:X\to\mathbb{R}$ in $L^\infty$ and some $L^q$, $\lim_{p\to\infty}\|f\|_p=\|f\|_\...
111
votes
2answers
55k views

Discontinuous derivative.

Could someone give an example of a ‘very’ discontinuous derivative? I myself can only come up with examples where the derivative is discontinuous at only one point. I am assuming the function is real-...
209
votes
1answer
13k views

How discontinuous can a derivative be?

There is a well-known result in elementary analysis due to Darboux which says if $f$ is a differentiable function then $f'$ satisfies the intermediate value property. To my knowledge, not many "...
26
votes
6answers
2k views

Given $y_n=(1+\frac{1}{n})^{n+1}$ show that $\lbrace y_n \rbrace$ is a decreasing sequence

Given $$ y_n=\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^{n+1}\hspace{-6mm},\qquad n \in \mathbb{N}, \quad n \geq 1. $$ Show that $\lbrace y_n \rbrace$ is a decreasing sequence. Anyone can help ? I consider the ...
69
votes
5answers
113k views

Reverse Triangle Inequality Proof

I've seen the full proof of the Triangle Inequality \begin{equation*} |x+y|\le|x|+|y|. \end{equation*} However, I haven't seen the proof of the reverse triangle inequality: \begin{equation*} ||x|-|...
80
votes
18answers
17k views

Proofs of AM-GM inequality

The arithmetic - geometric mean inequality states that $$\frac{x_1+ \ldots + x_n}{n} \geq \sqrt[n]{x_1 \cdots x_n}$$ I'm looking for some original proofs of this inequality. I can find the usual ...
56
votes
12answers
5k views

The limit of truncated sums of harmonic series, $\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}}$

Is it the case that $$\lim\limits_{k\to\infty}\sum\limits_{n=k+1}^{2k}{\frac{1}{n}} = 0$$ That is, does the "second half" of the harmonic series go to zero?
16
votes
5answers
2k views

Prove that $f'(a)=\lim_{x\rightarrow a}f'(x)$.

Let $f$ be a real-valued function continuous on $[a,b]$ and differentiable on $(a,b)$. Suppose that $\lim_{x\rightarrow a}f'(x)$ exists. Then, prove that $f$ is differentiable at $a$ and $f'(a)=\lim_{...
67
votes
2answers
9k views

If $f_k \to f$ a.e. and the $L^p$ norms converge, then $f_k \to f$ in $L^p$

Let $1\leq p < \infty$. Suppose that $\{f_k\} \subset L^p$ (the domain here does not necessarily have to be finite), $f_k \to f$ almost everywhere, and $\|f_k\|_{L^p} \to \|f\|_{L^p}$. Why is ...
105
votes
2answers
52k views

When can a sum and integral be interchanged?

Let's say I have $\int_{0}^{\infty}\sum_{n = 0}^{\infty} f_{n}(x)\, dx$ with $f_{n}(x)$ being continuous functions. When can interchange the integral and summation? Is $f_{n}(x) \geq 0$ for all $x$ ...
78
votes
11answers
9k views

Comparing $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ without calculating them

How can I calculate, without calculator or similar device, the values of $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ in order to compare them?
10
votes
1answer
4k views

Inequality involving $\limsup$ and $\liminf$: $ \liminf(a_{n+1}/a_n) \le \liminf((a_n)^{(1/n)}) \le \limsup((a_n)^{(1/n)}) \le \limsup(a_{n+1}/a_n)$

This may have been asked before, however I was unable to find any duplicate. This comes from pg. 52 of "Mathematical Analysis: An Introduction" by Browder. Problem 14: If $(a_n)$ is a sequence in $\...
95
votes
8answers
7k views

Proof of Frullani's theorem

How can I prove the Theorem of Frullani? I did not even know all the hypothesis that $f$ must satisfy, but I think that this are Let $\,f:\left[ {0,\infty } \right) \to \mathbb R$ be a a continuously ...
77
votes
4answers
14k views

Construction of a Borel set with positive but not full measure in each interval

I was wondering how one can construct a Borel set that doesn't have full measure on any interval of the real line but does have positive measure everywhere. To be precise, if $\mu$ denotes Lebesgue ...
136
votes
16answers
53k views

Any open subset of $\Bbb R$ is a at most countable union of disjoint open intervals. [Collecting Proofs]

This question has probably been asked. However, I am not interested in just getting the answer to it. Rather, I am interested in collecting as many different proofs of it which are as diverse as ...
45
votes
12answers
7k views

$\lim\limits_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite [on hold]

How do I prove that $ \displaystyle\lim_{n \to{+}\infty}{\sqrt[n]{n!}}$ is infinite?
138
votes
8answers
19k views

Why is $1^{\infty}$ considered to be an indeterminate form

From Wikipedia: In calculus and other branches of mathematical analysis, an indeterminate form is an algebraic expression obtained in the context of limits. Limits involving algebraic operations are ...
105
votes
10answers
7k views

Proving an alternating Euler sum: $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k+1} H_k}{k} = \frac{1}{2} \zeta(2) - \frac{1}{2} \log^2 2$

Let $$A(p,q) = \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{(-1)^{k+1}H^{(p)}_k}{k^q},$$ where $H^{(p)}_n = \sum_{i=1}^n i^{-p}$, the $n$th $p$-harmonic number. The $A(p,q)$'s are known as alternating Euler sums. ...
60
votes
13answers
20k views

Series converges implies $\lim{n a_n} = 0$

I'm studying for qualifying exams and ran into this problem. Show that if $\{a_n\}$ is a nonincreasing sequence of positive real numbers such that $\sum_n a_n$ converges, then $\lim_{n \rightarrow \...
33
votes
5answers
7k views

Sine function dense in $[-1,1]$

We know that the sine function takes it values between $[-1,1]$. So is the set $$A = \{ \sin{n} \ : \ n \in \mathbb{N}\}$$ dense in $[-1,1]$. Generally, for showing the set is dense, one proceeds, by ...
37
votes
6answers
29k views

Proving that $\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}f'(x) = 0$ when $\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}f(x)$ and $\lim\limits_{x\to\infty}f'(x)$ exist

I've been trying to solve the following problem: Suppose that $f$ and $f'$ are continuous functions on $\mathbb{R}$, and that $\displaystyle\lim_{x\to\infty}f(x)$ and $\displaystyle\lim_{x\to\...
84
votes
10answers
6k views

Calculating the integral $\int_{0}^{\infty} \frac{\cos x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$ without using complex analysis

Suppose that we do not know anything about the complex analysis (numbers). In this case, how to calculate the following integral in closed form? $$\int_0^\infty\frac{\cos\;x}{1+x^2}\mathrm{d}x$$
24
votes
5answers
11k views

Midpoint-Convex and Continuous Implies Convex

Given that $$f\left(\frac{x+y}{2}\right)\leqslant \frac{f(x)+f(y)}{2}~,$$ how can I show that $f$ is convex. Thanks. Edit: I'm sorry for all the confusion. $f$ is assumed to be continuous on an ...
79
votes
7answers
18k views

Evaluate the integral: $\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$

Compute $$\int_{0}^{1} \frac{\ln(x+1)}{x^2+1} \mathrm dx$$
143
votes
9answers
13k views

Self-Contained Proof that $\sum\limits_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac1{n^p}$ Converges for $p > 1$

To prove the convergence of the p-series $$\sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac1{n^p}$$ for $p > 1$, one typically appeals to either the Integral Test or the Cauchy Condensation Test. I am wondering if ...
95
votes
14answers
30k views

Nice proofs of $\zeta(4) = \frac{\pi^4}{90}$?

I know some nice ways to prove that $\zeta(2) = \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{1}{n^2} = \pi^2/6$. For example, see Robin Chapman's list or the answers to the question "Different methods to compute $\sum_{...
26
votes
3answers
13k views

Every subsequence of $x_n$ has a further subsequence which converges to $x$. Then the sequence $x_n$ converges to $x$.

Is the following true? Let $x_n$ be a sequence with the following property: Every subsequence of $x_n$ has a further subsequence which converges to $x$. Then the sequence $x_n$ converges to $x$. I ...
55
votes
3answers
7k views

Set of continuity points of a real function

I have a question about subsets $$ A \subseteq \mathbb R $$ for which there exists a function $$f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$$ such that the set of continuity points of $f$ is $A$. Can I characterize ...
22
votes
1answer
21k views

The $ l^{\infty} $-norm is equal to the limit of the $ l^{p} $-norms. [duplicate]

If we are in a sequence space, then the $ l^{p} $-norm of the sequence $ \mathbf{x} = (x_{i})_{i \in \mathbb{N}} $ is $ \displaystyle \left( \sum_{i=1}^{\infty} |x_{i}|^{p} \right)^{1/p} $. The $ l^{\...
29
votes
12answers
17k views

Why $\sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{k}{2^k} = 2$? [duplicate]

Can you please explain why $$ \sum_{k=1}^{\infty} \dfrac{k}{2^k} = \dfrac{1}{2} +\dfrac{ 2}{4} + \dfrac{3}{8}+ \dfrac{4}{16} +\dfrac{5}{32} + \dots = 2 $$ I know $1 + 2 + 3 + ... + n = \dfrac{n(n+1)}{...
50
votes
6answers
19k views

Does $ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\sin x}{x}dx $ have an improper Riemann integral or a Lebesgue integral?

In this wikipedia article for improper integrals, $$ \int_0^{\infty}\frac{\sin x}{x}dx $$ is given as an example for the integrals that have an improper Riemann integral but do not have a (proper) ...
56
votes
3answers
32k views

Does convergence in $L^{p}$ implies convergence almost everywhere?

If I know $\|f_{n}(x) - f(x)\|_{L^{p}(\mathbb{R})} \rightarrow 0$ as $n \rightarrow \infty$, do I know $\lim_{n \rightarrow \infty}f_{n}(x) = f(x)$ for almost every $x$?
15
votes
1answer
2k views

Sum of tangent functions where arguments are in specific arithmetic series

By looking through an book, I found this interesting series To prove that: $$\tan(\theta)+\tan \left(\theta+ \frac{\pi}{n} \right) + \tan\left(\theta + \frac{2\pi}{n}\right) + \dots + \tan \left (\...
30
votes
3answers
6k views

Multiples of an irrational number forming a dense subset

Say you picked your favorite irrational number $q$ and looking at $S = \{nq: n\in \mathbb{Z} \}$ in $\mathbb{R}$, you chopped off everything but the decimal of $nq$, leaving you with a number in $[0,1]...
44
votes
4answers
7k views

Can there be two distinct, continuous functions that are equal at all rationals?

Akhil showed that the Cardinality of set of real continuous functions is the same as the continuum, using as a step the observation that continuous functions that agree at rational points must agree ...
12
votes
7answers
6k views

Proof of Convergence: Babylonian Method $x_{n+1}=\frac{1}{2}(x_n + \frac{a}{x_n})$

a) Let $a>0$ and the sequence $x_n$ fulfills $x_1>0$ and $x_{n+1}=\frac{1}{2}(x_n + \frac{a}{x_n})$ for $n \in \mathbb N$. Show that $x_n \rightarrow \sqrt a$ when $n\rightarrow \infty$. I have ...
38
votes
3answers
3k views

No continuous function switches $\mathbb{Q}$ and the irrationals

Is there a way to prove the following result using connectedness? Result: Let $J=\mathbb{R} \setminus \mathbb{Q}$ denote the set of irrational numbers. There is no continuous map $f: \mathbb{R} \...
53
votes
3answers
8k views

What is the limit of $n \sin (2 \pi \cdot e \cdot n!)$ as $n$ goes to infinity?

I tried and got this $$e=\sum_{k=0}^\infty\frac{1}{k!}=\lim_{n\to\infty}\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}$$ $$n!\sum_{k=0}^n\frac{1}{k!}=\frac{n!}{0!}+\frac{n!}{1!}+\cdots+\frac{n!}{n!}=m$$ where $m$ is an ...
123
votes
6answers
41k views

When can you switch the order of limits?

Suppose you have a double sequence $\displaystyle a_{nm}$. What are sufficient conditions for you to be able to say that $\displaystyle \lim_{n\to \infty}\,\lim_{m\to \infty}{a_{nm}} = \lim_{m\to \...
64
votes
8answers
6k views

Evaluating $\int_0^\infty \sin x^2\, dx$ with real methods?

I have seen the Fresnel integral $$\int_0^\infty \sin x^2\, dx = \sqrt{\frac{\pi}{8}}$$ evaluated by contour integration and other complex analysis methods, and I have found these methods to be the ...
43
votes
3answers
12k views

Discontinuous linear functional

I'm trying to find a discontinuous linear functional into $\mathbb{R}$ as a prep question for a test. I know that I need an infinite-dimensional Vector Space. Since $\ell_2$ is infinite-dimensional, ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Show that $e^{x+y}=e^xe^y$ using $e^x=\lim_{n\to\infty }\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n$.

I was looking for a proof of $e^{x+y}=e^xe^y$ using the fact that $$e^x=\lim_{n\to\infty }\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n.$$ So I have that $$\left(1+\frac{x+y}{n}\right)^n=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}\frac{...
25
votes
4answers
5k views

Subgroup of $\mathbb{R}$ either dense or has a least positive element?

Let's say $G$ is some additive subgroup of $\mathbb{R}$ that has at least two elements. From what I understand, $G$ is then either dense in $\mathbb{R}$, or has some least positive element. What is ...
48
votes
6answers
20k views

Cardinality of set of real continuous functions

The set of all $\mathbb{R\to R}$ continuous functions is $\mathfrak c$. How to show that? Is there any bijection between $\mathbb R^n$ and the set of continuous functions?
42
votes
3answers
6k views

Every power series is the Taylor series of some $C^{\infty}$ function

Do you have some reference to a proof of the so-called Borel theorem, i.e. every power series is the Taylor series of some $C^{\infty}$ function?