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Questions tagged [plane-curves]

Plane curves are continuous (or smooth) functions $\gamma\colon I\to\mathbb R^2$ from a real interval to the plane. Sometimes also the image $\gamma(I)$ is called curve.

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Plot circle in a line

I'm having some problems in Matlab where I have eight points describing a circle and I want to plot them in an XY coordinate system along a line in this way. (Forgive the asimmertry in the picture, ...
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If there any plane curve whose critical points' curvature are invariant by linear transformation?

I was studying if the curvature of $f$: $$ f(x) = \frac{ax}{b+x} $$ can have the critical points located at the same vertical than this other $g$ curve: $$ g(x) = \frac{ax}{b+x} + cx = f(x) + cx $$ ...
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hexagon with plane symmetries with maths and technology. [duplicate]

Find all plane symmetries (rotations and reflections) of a regular pentagon and of the regular hexagon.
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28 views

Finding Line tangent to surface and parallel to plane.

I had an exam today and I wanted to know if I solved this question correct. It asked me to, given a surface curve, like $z=x^2+y^2+10$, find the line tangent to it at point $(2,2,1)$ and parallel ...
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28 views

Intersection multiplicity and contact order of plane curves

A standard fact about intersection multiplicities of algebraic plane curves is that, for curves $X=V(F(x,y))$ and $Y=V(G(x,y))$, if $p\in X\cap Y$ is a non-singular point of $X$ and $Y$ then $$ I_p(X,...
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33 views

Does the system $xy = ab, G(x)+G(y)=G(a)+G(b)$ always have exactly two solutions if $G$ is continuous and injective?

If $f$ and $g$ are commutative operations $$\mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R},$$ then for any constants $a,b \in \mathbb{R}$, the system of equations $$f(x,y) = f(a,b), \qquad g(x,y) ...
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35 views

Total curvature of a parametrized-by-arc-length curve

Suppose we have the following smooth curve $\sigma:]0,2\pi[\leftarrow\mathbb{R}^2, \sigma(t) = (t, \sin t)$. I want to find the total curvature $\kappa := \int_0^{2\pi}||\sigma''(t)||dt$, but first I ...
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Formulations of Cauchy's theorem that don't seem consistent

So I am reading through the book Complex Analysis by Lars Ahlfors, and there is one point that is causing some confusion for me: In chapter 4.2 - Cauchy's integral formula, we first encounter the ...
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56 views

Total curvature of a closed polygonal curve

Let $\tau$ be a closed polygonal curve in the plane, that is, $\tau$ consists of $n$ piecewise-linear segments between the vertices $v_1, \ldots, v_n, v_1$. The total curvature of $\tau$ is defined as ...
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1answer
22 views

Is it possible to construct a closed, simple curve in $\mathbb{R}^2$ that has a segment with zero curvature and is differentiable everywhere?

The question title says it all. Presume I am interested in creating a closed, simple curve in $\mathbb{R}^2$ that contains a segment with zero curvature (that is, part of it is a straight line). ...
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Orthogonal trajectories of unit circles centered on x-axis [closed]

Find ( $c$ is an arbitrary constant ) orthogonal trajectories of circles: $$ (x-c)^2+ y^2= 1 $$
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How does one find a parameter representation for bounded region?

I need help with this question. I have been stuck at it for a few days. My main problem is how I use the curve $K_r$ to find the parametric representation. I have a curve $K_r$ in the $(x,y)$-plane ...
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What kind of Planar Quartic Curve might this be?

I'm trying to smoke out the parameters for a family of curves showing up in a particular optimization problem. I have convinced myself that the solutions always lie on a quartic curve, which is ...
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28 views

Strong/weak tangents and limit positions, with rigor

As I'm working from do Carmo's Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, I have found some of his imprecise language regarding strong and weak tangents to be most irksome. I've seen similar posts ...
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prove an inequality between the curvature of these curves

The exercise is: Let $\alpha$ a plane curve such that $|\alpha'(s)|=1$ with curvature $k(s)$. Let $\beta(s)=\alpha(s) + k(s)N(s)$ such that $\beta'(s)\ne 0$ $\forall s$. ($N$ is the normal vector ...
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Confusion about a tangent line approaching an asymptote

I'm working from do Carmo's Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces, 2ed. He tends to use language like"the curve $\alpha$ and its tangent line approach [some line] $L$" or "the curve $\alpha$ ...
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44 views

How many straight lines and circles can be drawn in the plane so that they are equidistant from all four points?

Four points on a plane are given which are not collinear or all on one circle. How many straight lines and circles can be drawn in the plane so that they are equidistant from all four points? If not ...
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Formula for the osculating conic of a plane curve

A follow up to this question. Presumably similar curves have similar osculating conics, which in turn have identical eccentricities. Thus, the 'local eccentricity' of a plane curve at a point is the ...
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Prove that the curve $\alpha(t)$ is tangent to the $x$ axis.

I have the curve $\alpha(t):(-1,\infty) \rightarrow R^2$ given by $\alpha(t)= ((\frac{nat}{1+t^3}), (\frac{nat^2}{1+t^3}))$ with $n$ a natural an $a$ a constant both of them fixed. I need to prove ...
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Can an arbitrary curve in $\Bbb R^2$ be a graph of a certain equation?

Can any curve in $\Bbb R^2$ (which doesn't intersect itself) be a graph of a certain equation? In other words, if given an arbitrary curve in $\Bbb R^2$ (which doesn't intersect itself), is there a ...
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Must a curve $\eta \colon [a, b] \to \mathbb{R}^2$ intersect the curves $\eta + \frac{\eta(b) - \eta(a)}{n}$ ($n \geqslant 1$)?

Must a curve $\eta \colon [a, b] \to \mathbb{R}^2$ intersect the curves $\eta + \frac{\eta(b) - \eta(a)}{n}$ ($n \geqslant 1$)? This is the fourth - and with any luck, the last! - in a series of ...
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Parametrization of special family of tori knots

Finding the parametric equations of an (a-c)tori knot knowing that one turn has the following parametric equation: $$\alpha(t)=\begin{pmatrix} x=\Big(R_1+R_2\cos(t)\Big)\cos\biggr(c\arctan\Big(\dfrac{...
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1answer
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$\tilde \phi:\Gamma (W)\rightarrow \Gamma(V)$ may not extends to all $k(W)$

A problem from Fulton's Algebraic Curves:-- Let $\phi:V\rightarrow W$ be a polynomial map between two affine varieties and $\tilde \phi:\Gamma (W)\rightarrow \Gamma(V)$ be the induced map between co-...
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If $\gamma\colon[a,b]\to\mathbb{C}$ is continuous and $\gamma(b)=-\gamma(a)$, must the curves $\gamma$ and $e^{ic}\gamma$ intersect for all real $c$?

If $[a, b]$ is a compact interval of $\mathbb{R}$ and $\gamma: [a, b] \to \mathbb{C}$ is continuous, denote the connected, compact set $\gamma([a, b])$ by $[\gamma]$. If $h$ is a complex number of ...
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1answer
61 views

If two closed plane curves are outside each other, can there be a point inside both of them?

I think this recent question (also here) has a quick answer if the conjecture below is true. It looks "obviously" true, but I've learned to distrust my judgement in such matters. It also looks as if ...
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1answer
24 views

Plane clipping by cubic limits

I have a plane equation given by a point and a normal vector, for example. This plane has to lay between $xyz$ limits, $300<x<2700$, $150<y<1350$, $130<z<1370$. I want to know the ...
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1answer
65 views

Curvature inequality involving a Curve within a disk

If a closed plane curve $C$ is contained inside a disk of radius $r$, prove that there exists a point $p \in C$ such that the curvature k of C at p satisfies $\lvert k\rvert \ge$ $1/r$. I understand ...
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Matrix powers and hyperbola

(We're in $\mathbb{R}^2$) How to find hyperbola equation, that has symmetry axis crossing (0,0) point and for $n=1,2,\ldots$ points ${\begin{pmatrix} 4 & 3 \\ 1 & 1 \end{pmatrix}}^n \begin{...
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1answer
83 views

Prove that this system has no periodic orbits

Question: Show that the system \begin{align} \frac{dx}{dt} & = 10x-0.1xy-0.02x^2+1 \\ \frac{dy}{dt} & = -10y+0.1xy+1 \end{align} has no periodic orbits Attempt: The first thing I tried ...
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Convex curve has convex interior

Let $c: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ be a simple closed curve with curvature $\kappa \geq 0$. Then the interior of $c$ is convex. I know that in this case $$ \langle N(t_0), c(t) - c(t_0)...
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When are cone geodesics planar

I mentioned to my (high school) students today that the intersection of a plane and a cone gives a conic section. One asked whether if you 'unroll the cone' the conic section becomes a straight line ...
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What is the difference between the following definitions of Vector Functions and Parametric Curves?

The definitions seem exactly the same to me. We have a(t) to be a vector function and x(t) to be a parametric curve where the tip of the position vector traces out a curve in an $n$-dimensional space ...
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1answer
53 views

Affine plane curves with constant curvature

Question I want to solve this differential equation for $P : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{A}^2$, a plane affine curve. $ P'''(t) = \frac{P'(t)}{t^2}$ Someone recognize this equation? Is a famous curve? ...
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3answers
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Find the point of tangency between a plane and an ellipsoid

So, it is given that - The tangent plane to the ellipsoid $4x^2 + y^2 + 2z^2 = 16$ is $2x + y + 2z = k$. I’m trying to find k, and the point of tangency between those two. What I did - Assumed that ...
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1answer
68 views

When to parameterize to find equation of tangent plane and normal line?

I'm working through some problems asking to find the equation of a tangent plane and the normal line to the surface. I notice that some example questions parameterize the curve before solving and ...
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Can a Jordan convex curve be rewritten as the image of 4 monotone real functions?

Is it true that a smooth Jordan curve $C \subseteq \mathbb{R}^2$ that is convex (in the sense that the region bounded by this curve is convex) can be rewritten as the union of the image sets of 4 ...
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Show that $P(x,y)=0$ is a hyperbola if $b^2−4ac>0$ .

The following exercise is from Thomas Garrity's Algebraic Geometry: A Problem Solving Approach. I write the polynomial $P(x, y) = ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+h$ in the form $P(x, y) = Ax^2 + Bx + C$ where $A$...
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1answer
249 views

Show that $P(x,y)=0$ is an ellipse if $b^2-4ac<0$.

I tried the following: I write the polynomial $P(x, y) = ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+h$ in the form $P(x, y) = Ax^2 + Bx + C$ where $A$, $B$, and $C$ are polynomial functions of $y$. This $P(x, y) = Q(x)$ ...
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70 views

Show that $P(x,y)=0$ is a parabola if $b^2-4ac=0$.

I tried the following: I write the polynomial $P(x, y) = ax^2+bxy+cy^2+dx+ey+h$ in the form $P(x, y) = Ax2 + Bx + C$ where $A$, $B$, and $C$ are polynomial functions of $y$. This $P(x, y) = Q(x)$ ...
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1answer
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Is the role of the boxed condition $z'(t)\neq 0$ to avoid going back?

The role of the boxed condition $z'(t)\neq 0$ is to avoid going back, isn't it?
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1answer
62 views

Octahedron Pyramid

So, each octahedron can be inscribed in a cube, so that the corner points of the octahedron are in the midpoints of the side areas of the cube, am I right? From the octahedron $ABCDS_1S_2$, shown in ...
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1answer
129 views

How can one show that an elliptic curve has a point whose tangent line also meet another point of the curve

I'm coming from a projective setting of a smooth cubic plane curve over a field $K$ and want to show that I can bring it to the Weierstrass long form. The usual method is to start with a point and ...
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How to deduce Jordan Curve Theorem from Schönflies Theorem

Recently I started reading Ethan Bloch's "A First Course in Geometric Topology and Differential Geometry" and I came upon this exercise to deduce the Jordan Curve Theorem from the Schönflies Theorem: ...
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81 views

Prove that this class of curves has constant speed and curvature

Let $\gamma: (a,b) \rightarrow \mathbb{R}^2$ be a smooth regular curve such that $\forall s,t \in (a,b)$ , $||\gamma(s)-\gamma(t)||$ is a non-negative real valued function which depends only on $|t-s|$...
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1answer
28 views

Distance between a line given by planes and origin by Lagrange's multiplier.

Find the minimum distance of the line given by the planes $3x+4y+5z=7$ and $x-z=9$ from the origin, by the method of Lagrange’s multipliers. As- Is it ok to take the Lagrange functions as given ...
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1answer
49 views

Limits of integration for triple integrals

Suppose you have the following problem: Express the mass of a solid tetrahedron T, with vertices $(0,0,0)$, $(1,0,0)$, $(1,4,0)$, and $(1,0,3)$ and density function $p(x,y,z) = 6xyz$. Graphically, I ...
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Show that a closed curve formed by two disjoint paths contains the corner of a unit square?

I am looking for a reference, or a topologically/analytically rigorous way of showing the following: Consider two injective paths in $\mathbb{R}^2$ parametrized as $p_1(t)$, $p_2(t)$, $0 \leq t \...
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1answer
71 views

Resolution of plane curve singularity

Given a plane curve $C$ over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 0 and $p\in C$ a singular point, if $f:\tilde{C}\to C$ is a resolution of the singularity and $f^{-1}(p)$ consists of one ...
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1answer
29 views

Space filling curve's intersections with closed jordan curves [closed]

Does there exist an space_filling curve in $\mathbb{R^2}$ which intersects with each closed jordan curve in plane in an uncountable number of points?
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1answer
59 views

Showing that $x(t)=at^2$, $y(t)=vt-at^2$ parameterizes a parabola

Solving a physics problem I obtained following motion equations $$ x(t) = at^2 $$ $$ y(t) = vt - a t^2 $$ And I want to determine what type of curve is it on the interval of $\left<0,v\right>$. ...