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Questions tagged [p-value]

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2
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2answers
23 views

Is P value Type I error in hypothesis testing?

I'm confused about the interpretation of P value in hypothesis testing. I know that we set significance level as 0.05 which is the threshold we set for this test so that it won't suffer from Type I ...
2
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1answer
52 views

Basic but illuminating examples of statistical modeling

I'd like to know the best examples that are simple and easy to understand, but which also capture the essence and the spirit of statistical modeling. What are some simple but also fundamental and ...
2
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1answer
28 views

P-value vs. Bayesian statistics

Are there any theoretical considerations between $p$-value and the Bayesian statistics? I mean say, any theorem regarding both of these two concepts at a time.
2
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1answer
38 views

Is a study with a small sample size less meaningful than one with a big sample size?

To my understanding, the p value of a study determines how likely a result this extreme or more extreme would happen if there were no effect (e.g. due to coincidence, measuring inaccuracies etc.). ...
1
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3answers
56 views

Type-I vs. type-II error in statistical hypotheses testing

Let us consider standard statistical hypotheses testing: $$\alpha=P\{\text{type}-I \text{ error}\}=P\{\text{Rejecting } H_0 \text{ when }H_0\text{ is true}\}$$ and $$\beta=P\{\text{type}-II \...
1
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1answer
36 views

Need help understanding hypothesis testing

I have the following question: Let $X_{i}$ be Gaussian random variables with $\mu$ = 10 and $\sigma^{2}$ = 1. We decide to use the test statistic $\hat{\mu}$ = $\frac{1}{20}\sum_{i=1}^{20}X_{i}$...
1
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1answer
25 views

Find the p value following the exponential distribution $\mu=3$

I want to find the $p$-value (manually) of the following Hypothesis testing. $$H_0:\mu\leq 3 \quad \text{vs} \quad H_1:\mu >3$$ The main thing I know is that $$P(\mathrm{Re}\,j \mid \mu \leq 3)=...
1
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0answers
23 views

p-value of specific test

I am trying to solve the following exercise: A control authority needs to test that the probability of getting $0$ at roulette is $1/37$ and bigger. After 1000 trials, they get the number $0$ $40$ ...
0
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1answer
13 views

What if correlation coefficient is much less whereas the p-values is much lesser than the our significance level?

I have a data between rating of the restaurant and the approximate price of food in the restaurant. After doing Hypothesis testing. The pearson correlation coefficient was found to be 0.33 whereas p ...
0
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1answer
44 views

Interpretation of the p-value and the test-statistic W of the Shapiro.test in R

Shapiro-Wilk normality test data: Part1 W = 0.14846, p-value = 6.478e-16 Shapiro-Wilk normality test data: Part2 W = 0.47978, p-value < 2.2e-16 Shapiro-Wilk normality test data: Part3 ...
0
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1answer
34 views

How can I visually estimate, or eyeball, the p-value of a histogram?

The question is: what is the approximate P-value for the investigation of whether mother’s smoking during pregnancy has an effect on the length of gestation. The p-value of this histogram is ...
0
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1answer
15 views

Should a variable with a high p-value exclude from the equation

I have just made a regression with 2 explanatory variables and one dependent variable. One of the variables have a p-value of 0.0303 which I consider significant and the other have a p-value of 0.708. ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Calculating p from a set of assumed probabilities and their actual outcomes

I am playing a computer game where many actions have a set chance to succeed communicated to the player as a percent chance of success. I have began to suspect the the displayed chances do not ...
0
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0answers
17 views

Using t table to determine P-value [closed]

I am doing an excercise with following problem: Use the t tables to estimate the P-value for t>=2.09 with 4 degrees of freedom. The answer is: 0.0524 ...
0
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1answer
27 views

Regression: width of confidence interval vs t-statistic

My question is about confidence intervals of the slopes estimated in a multivariate regression. I would like to clear up something that is probably a fault somewhere in my understanding. As I ...
0
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0answers
9 views

Devising a hypothesis test for machine failure rate

I'm trying to devise a hypothesis test for failure rate data of machines. The gist is that there are some machines in a factory that run all the time. They fail from time to time and are promptly ...
0
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0answers
15 views

minimum significant regression coefficient value based on sample size

I have a dataset with 35 observations for five variables, namely ET, sw, ws, vpd,Ta. I am doing a simple linear regression between ET and each of the other four variables (i.e ET with sw; ET with ws; ...
0
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1answer
21 views

How will p-values behave when fitting normal/Poisson to binomial?

I know p-values behave uniformly. Now as p(np) is fixed and n goes to infinity, binomial converges to normal(Poisson). Now suppose I take random binomial samplings and fir normal(Poisson) to it, for ...
0
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1answer
33 views

p-value of the following test

I have the following problem: I have $X_1 ... X_n$ ~ Bernoulli(p) independent. I also have the following test hypothesis: $H_0: p = p_0$ and $H_1: p > p_0$. I define my test as follows: $T:$ I ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Making conclusions in a z test for a proportion

A poll from a previous year showed that $10\%$ of smartphone owners relied on their data plan as their primary form of internet access. Researchers were curious if that had changed, so they tested $...
0
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0answers
34 views

P_Value and Hypothesis testing

Please help me to understand the p-value concept in prospect of Multiple Regression (Backward Elimination). My understanding here is that The null hypothesis is we will assume that the dependent ...
0
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1answer
22 views

Manual calculation of p-value from chi square and df

I am trying to create an algorithm that could calculate the p-value given the chi-square statistic and the degrees of freedom. I found the following formula here Can anyone please point me in the ...
0
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1answer
53 views

p-value of a test statistic on a two-sided test

For coursework, I am doing a two-sided test ($H_0 \beta = 0, H_a \beta \neq 0$). The test itself is a generalized likelihood ratio. The test statistic is the ratio LR: $$LR=\frac{L(\beta=0)}{argmax_{\...
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2answers
26 views

Removing variable with big p-value?

I have made a regression with 2 explanatory variables. The summary of that regression shows that one of my variable has a big p-value (0.705). Should I include that variable when writing the the y hat ...
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0answers
25 views

p-value, hypotheses testing, type II error

In hypotheses testing, the $p$-value is the smallest significance level $\alpha$ at which the test rejects $H_0$ if $H_0$ is in fact true. Is there a similar concept as is $p$-value also for the type-...
0
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1answer
17 views

Test hypothesis, probability of rejecting $H_0$

A mechanic wants to test how difficult it is to unscrew the bolts that hold the tires in place in a car. Assume that out of $8$ cars tested, the average force was $259.634$ newtons. Also assume that ...
0
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1answer
44 views

$p$-value,the significance level

Here in the definition 5.3.11 on the page 249 they write "The $p$-value associated with a test is the smallest significance level $α$ for which the null hypothesis is rejected." My question is what ...
0
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0answers
25 views

Symmetry of Pr[accept $H_0$∣$H_0$ is true] and Pr[reject $H_0$∣$H_0$ is true]

I still do not follow why here they say and where does the asymmetry of Pr[reject $H_0$∣$H_0$ is true] and Pr[accept $H_0$∣$H_0$ is true] come from. And they continue:" The $p$-value is a ...