# Questions tagged [optimization]

Optimization is the process of choosing the "best" value among possible values. They are often formulated as questions on the minimization/maximization of functions, with or without constraints.

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### why gradient descent does not always land at the global minimum closest to the starting point?

I am given this function $\boxed{f(x,y)=((x^2+y^2)-1)^2}$. I need to do gradient descent analysis on it. I have studied that it's not trivial to show mathematically "ball reaches to the global ...
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### Airfare Ticket Reduction Optimization Problem

I am a little confused as to this basic calculus question. I'll paste it here, it's from my school textbook. The airfare between Vienna and Dubai is approximately €500. An airline has a passenger ...
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### Utility Maximization Problem [closed]

Describe how (a) the optimal consumption bundle of an agent and (b) the optimal level of utility derived by the agent changes with changes in the underlying parameters of the following utility ...
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### Let $B$ be symmetric and positive definite. Show that the range of $B - \frac{Bss^TB}{s^TB}$ is $n-1$.

Let $B\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ simetric and positive definite and $s\in\mathbb{R}^n-\{0\}$. Let $M := B - \frac{Bss^TB}{s^TBs}$.Show that the range of the matrix $M$ is $n-1$ and find its null ...
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### Is this method correct for this transportation problem?

I've attatched a picture of the question I am working on currently, note that this is a past exam paper with no mark scheme. I am only interested in solving part c, can anyone verify that this method ...
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### Show that the absolute maximum of $f(x, y) = \frac{(ax+by+c)^2}{x^2+y^2+1}$ is $a^2 + b^2 + c^2$

I got this question on my exam today: show that the function $f(x, y) = \dfrac{(ax+by+c)^2}{x^2+y^2+1}$ has an absolute maximum whose value is $a^2 + b^2 + c^2$. I tried setting the gradient to the ...
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### Optimization problem: conditions according to KKT and example of no solution with feasible region not empty

Could you help me with the solution of this problem please? Given the problem: $$min\;\;c^Tx$$ $$s.t.\; Ax\leq }$$ $$\;\;\;\;\;\;x\geq }$$ Where A a m x n matrix, c a ...
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### Can we convert a simplex tableau into a linear program?

Say we have been given a simplex tableau and let us assume that this isn't the first tableau (i.e. simplex has been run once or twice on it at this point). Can we convert this tableau back into the ...
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### Is there a rigorous proof that $L_1$ regularization produces sparse results

I'm looking for a rigorous proof that the $L_1$ regularization really produces sparsity, there are multiple intuitive ones like these which I understand but all of these feel like they just explain ...
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### Show that for any sequence $\{γ_k\}$ convergent to zero, there exists a sequence $\{x(γ_k)\}$ which tends to $0$

Let $x\in \mathbb{R}$. Consider the following problem $$\text{minimize}\quad x\quad\text{s.t}\quad x^2\geq 0 \quad \text{and}\quad x+1\geq0$$ The optimal solution is $x=-1$ Define the (primal) ...
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### Example of local convergence to a global optimum for nonconvex gradient descent

These slides give an overview of some results in nonconvex optimization with gradient descent (GD). They suggest a few types of results that are proven about nonconvex GD: Convergence to a local ...
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### Gradient of an objective function containg coupled odes

I have position values of the form $\mathbf{X} = \left[x \; \;y \right]^{T}$. Frenet-Serret model for 2D would consist of following equations: $$\frac{d{\mathbf{X}}_{model}}{dt} = V(t){\mathbf{T}}$$ ...
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### Add some constraints to make $x^TAy \geq 0$ where $A \succ 0$

I am trying to prove the difference of two algorithms' asymptotic mean square error. Eventually, I get an expression like $x^TAy$, where $A$ is a positive definite matrix. I would love to see under ...
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### Is my method equivalent to my lecturers?

In lectures we were shown how to 'breakdown' a piece-wise linear function so that it can be used as part of a linear program. Now, my lecturer wrote the function as $a=f(x)=\max(0,55x-11000)$ and in ...
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### Regression on Matrix of Vectors [closed]

I was wondering what it means the do a regression on a Matrix of Vectors specifically a LASSO regression. I understand what it means to perform the regression on a standard matrix of scalars but does ...
1 vote
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### Find the value $\hat{\beta}$ which minimizes $\sum_{i=1}^{4}|i||i- \beta|$ for $\beta \in \mathbb{R}$

I am looking for the value $\hat{\beta}$ which satisfies the following condition: for each $\beta \in \mathbb{R}$, $$\sum_{i=1}^{4}|i||i - \hat{\beta}| \leq \sum_{i=1}^{4}|i||i - \beta|\text{.}$$ ...
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### Optimization problem involving simultaneous solution of $k$ partial derivatives

My Question is how to maximize F in the following setup: $$F(\beta) = \prod_{i \in A}p_{i} \prod_{i \in B} 1-p_{i}$$ $$p_{i} = \frac{1}{1+e^-(x_{i}\beta)}$$ Where $A,B \subset N$ and $A \cap B = 0$. ...
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### How do I prove this dynamic programming problem?

Given: $y_i$, $w_i$ - variables at stage $i$, $y_{i} \in \mathbb{R}$, $y_{i} \in \mathbb{R}$; $a\leq w_i \leq b$; $i = 1,\dots,n$ We are also given a function $\phi(\cdot)$ which is continuous. $y_1$ ...
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### Let $h:\mathbb{R}^n\to\mathbb{R}$ be proper convex. Prove $\operatorname{argmin}_x M_{\lambda h}(x)=\operatorname{argmin}_x h(x)$

If $h:\mathbb{R} ^n \rightarrow \mathbb{R}\cup {+\infty}$ is proper convex (convex and atleast $1$ finite element in it's range) and differentiable at $\operatorname{prox}_{\lambda h}(x)$ (the argmin ...
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### Split Bregman Algorithm for L1 optimization

I know that split bregman algorithm can be used for $L1$ norm optimization problem. In literature I have seen solving the problem of $x =: \underset{x}{\text{argmin }}\frac{1}{2}||y-Ax||^2+||x||_1$ ...
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### Minimum possible sum of squares of two numbers with sum $k$?

If the sum of two numbers is k. Find the minimum value of the sum of their squares. This is my calculations so far. ...
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### Global minimization and least squares

I'm having a bit of trouble proving the following: Let $A \in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ and $b \in \mathbb{R}^{m}$ and define $f: \mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}$ by $f(x) = ||Ax - b||^2$. How can I show ...
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### The requirement of compactness for the Strict Separation Theorem

In class I learned about the following theorem: Strict Separation Theorem: Let $A$ and $B$ be two closed convex subsets of $\mathbb{R}^n$ with that $A \cap B = \emptyset$. Furthermore assume that $A$ ...
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Let $x\in\mathbb{R}$. Consider the problem $$\text{minimize}\quad \frac{1}{1+x^2}\quad\text{s.t}\quad x\geq 1$$ Show that the logaritmic primal barrier $B(x,\rho)$ is not bounded from above (for $x\... 1 vote 1 answer 51 views ### Why does least-squares need regularization? If I understand regularization correctly, it helps if a least-squares problem is not well-posed thus... the problem has no solution the problem has multiple solutions a small change in the input ... 1 vote 1 answer 23 views ### Theorem of Alternatives proof only one of the systems is solvable Let$ A \in R^{nxm}$,$x \in R^n$,$c,y \in R^m$show that, either I)$Ax=c$II)$A^Ty=0, c^Ty=1$is solvable I'm completely new to the theorem of alternatives, so my attempt is: If I is solvable ... 1 vote 1 answer 25 views ### A square on the equator of a sphere is a critical point of the electrostatic potential$\newcommand{\S}{\mathbb{S}^2}$This is a self-answered question. I learned something from spelling out the details, and I hope this could be interesting to others. I would welcome alternative ... 0 votes 0 answers 39 views ### The effect that slightly increasing a variable has on the optimal solution [closed] I am going through a past exam paper that doesn't have a mark scheme provided. I am struggling to figure out how you would do part b. Can anyone explain how you would go about getting an answer for ... 2 votes 5 answers 115 views ### Is it possible to compute$-\log\left({\sqrt{1.8\times 10^{-5}\times 0.1}}\right)$without a calculator? The following question is part of a chemistry problem that came in the Dhaka University admission exam 2013-14. What is$-\log\left({\sqrt{1.8\times 10^{-5}\times 0.1}}\right)$? (a) 2.672 (b) 2.... 1 vote 0 answers 25 views ### How is the Wilson-Han-Powell SQP algorithm applied? Say for example we need to minimize$x_2$subject to$x_1^2+x_2^2-1=0$starting at$x_1=x_2=1/2$and using$B=\nabla^2[x_2+\lambda(x_1^2+x_2^2-1)]$with$\lambda=1$. Now, the WHP-SQP algorithm goes ... 1 vote 1 answer 47 views ### Is a planar square on the equator a locally energy minimizing configuration of electrons on$\mathbb{S}^2$?$\newcommand{\S}{\mathbb{S}^2}$Let$$M=\{(x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4) \in \mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2 \times \mathbb{S}^2 \, |\,\, \text{ all the } x_i \, \text{ are distinct}\}$$ Let$...
Suppose $(\Theta^n)_{n\in \mathbb{N}}$ is a monotone sequence of sets in $\mathbb{R}^d$ and $\Theta^{\infty}$ is its limit. Also, let $f:\mathbb{R}^d \to \mathbb{R}$ be a continuous function. I want ...