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Questions tagged [numerical-calculus]

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34 views

Numerically find the function that maximise a probability

I have a sample consisting of $N$ data for the function $$g(\nu) = \int\limits_0^{\infty} \cos{\left(\nu x\right)} f(x) \,\mathrm d x$$ and I want to solve the integral equation for $f(x)$ ...
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1answer
18 views

Pseudoinverse of pseudoinverse of matrix A equals A: ${(A^{+})}^{+}=A$

As you know, a Matrix $A^{+}\in \mathbb{R}^{m\times n}$ is called a a pseudoinverse of $A\in \mathbb{R}^{n\times m}$ if $\Vert b-A A^{+} b \Vert_2\leq\Vert b- A y\Vert_2 \forall b\in \mathbb{R}^{n} \...
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1answer
25 views

What should be the maximum value of $h$ so that the upper bound of

What should be the maximum value of $h$ so that the upper bound of the error of approximated value of $\int \dfrac {dx}{x^2}$ using Composite Trapezoidal Rule is within $10^{-3}$? The limit of ...
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1answer
87 views

Simplify this expression for the relative condition number of $f(x,y) := [ x^y, x + y ]^T$

Find the relative condition number of the function $$ f: D := (0, 2] \times \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}, \ (x,y) \mapsto \begin{bmatrix} x^y \\ x + y \end{bmatrix} $$ and use the euclidean norm for ...
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1answer
45 views

Simplify this expression with divided differences.

The divided differences are defined as follows $$ f[x_i] := f(x_i), \quad f[x_0, \ldots, x_n] := \frac{f[x_1, \ldots, x_n] - f[x_0, \ldots, x_{n - 1}]}{x_n - x_0} \quad \text{for } n \ge 2 $$ For ...
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4answers
51 views

Find $x_{50}$ quadratic equation

I don't really know how to title this question You are provided the quadratic equation $ax^2 + x -1 = 0$ with a root $x$, with formula $x= \frac{-1+\sqrt{1+4a}}{2a}$ for each $a = 2^{-p}$,...
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23 views

numerical method for no linear problem

can you help me please to program with FreeFem++ the Following non linear problem: $$ \dfrac{\partial u}{\partial t} - \Delta u + F(u)= f(x,t), \ x \in (0,1)^2, t \in [0,T] $$ where $F$ in non linear ...
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2answers
36 views

Integration of the multiplication of normal cdf and exponential function

I have to find the integral of $$\int_{M_0}^{\infty} q(m, \mu, \sigma) \beta e^{-\beta(m-M_0)}\,\mathrm{d}m,$$ where $q(m, \mu, \sigma)$ is the normal cumulative distribution function, $M_0$ is a ...
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2answers
59 views

Composite trapezoidal rule's error term representation has $k_1h^2 + k_2 h^4 +… $ to apply Romberg integration

I am trying to apply the Romberg method but when trying to evaluate the Error, I can't eliminate the appearance of the term $\frac{1}{12}f^{(3)}(\psi)h^3$, When I wish to get $E = K_1h^2 +K_2h^4 +K_3 ...
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24 views

How should I approach this exponential interpolation problem?

Here is the question I am stuck on part b) of this problem from my numerical analysis class. I think I am supposed to construct a matrix and show that it is linearly independent but I am not sure ...
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1answer
38 views

Approximate $f''(x)$ given $f(x),f(x+h),f(x+3h),f(x-5h)$

Given $f(x),f(x+h),f(x+3h),f(x-5h)$, approximate $f''(x)$. Book's solution: From Taylor' series, $$ \\ f(x+h)=f(x)+f'(x)h+0.5f''(x)h^2+{1\over6}f'''(x)h^3+O(h^4) \\ f(x+3h)=f(x)+3f'(x)h+4.5f''(x)h^2+...
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17 views

Matrix Numerov Method in three dimensions

Hi can anybody help me to write the following equation in form of matrix by using Numerov's method. $\left(\frac{d^2}{d x_1^2}+\frac{d^2}{d x_2^2}+\frac{d^2}{d x_3^2}+x^2_1+x^2_2+x^2_3+x_1x_2+x_2x_3+...
1
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1answer
28 views

If the initial points for secant iteration method are sufficiently close to the root, the iteration converges to the root

Well I wish to prove that in case I may choose $x_0,x_1$ close enough to the root $a$ of $f(x)$, then the secant method $x_{n+1} = x_n -\frac{x_n -x_{n-1}}{f(x_n)-f(x_{n-1})}f(x_n)$ converges to the ...
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0answers
54 views

Does Aitken's $\Delta^2$ method asymptotically improve rate of convergence?

Denoting $y_n = x_n-\frac{(x_{n+1}-x_n)^2}{x_{n+2}-2x_{n+1} +x_n}$ when $x_n\rightarrow_{n\rightarrow\infty} a $ with $p$ convergence order. I showed that $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} |\frac {y_n-a}{...
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0answers
29 views

Is the product of two “sample” matrices a sample matrix?

Let $f,g \colon \mathbb R^2 \to \mathbb R$ be two smooth functions. Take a uniform, square grid of the unit cube in $\mathbb R^2$ and let $\{p_{ij}\}_{i,j=1, \ldots, L} \subset \mathbb R^2$ be the ...
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1answer
23 views

Is a function with these conditions both convex and concave?

Let $f : [a,b] \to \mathbb{R}, f‘(x)>0, f‘‘(x)<=0, f(a)<0<f(b)$, so f is strictly monotonous increasing and concave. Also let f satisfy $b-\frac{f(b)}{f‘(b)} >= a$. Is f a straight ...
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24 views

Romberg-Integration relative error

How can I check if the relative error of two successive diagonal elements is smaller than e.g. $10^{-3}$? $\left\vert \frac{T_{1,2}-T_{1,3}}{T_{1,3}}\right\vert<0.001$ for a Romberg Tableau of ...
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0answers
46 views

Advantages and disadvantages of the Golden-section search method

As I understand that the golden-section search is a zero-order line search method so it is a global method so in comparison with Newton's and the secant's method this is an advantage. But it has a ...
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1answer
38 views

First derivative approximation using function values in equidistant points

Given a function $f: [x_0,x_4] → \Bbb R$ and equidistant points $x_0, x_1, x_2, x_3, x_4$ so that $h=x_{i+1} - x_i > 0$. Normally I would do, $f'(x) \approx \dfrac{f(x+h)-f(x)}{h}$, but here I ...
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1answer
28 views

On highest degree of precision of numerical integration scheme that comes from interpolating polynomial

Let $x_1,...,x_n$ be distinct points in $[a,b]$ and $l_i(x):=\prod_{k\ne i}\dfrac {x-x_k}{x_i-x_k} $. Let $w_i=\int_a^b l_i(x)dx$. For every $f \in C[a,b]$, let $I_n(f):=\sum_{i=1}^n w_i f(x_i)$. ...
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0answers
49 views

How to improve the convergence of a stochastic differential equation?

I have a stochastic differential equation, i.e, $$ d\rho_t= \hat{A} \rho_s dt + \hat{B} \rho_s \nu dt + \hat{C}\rho_s\omega_{1t} dt + \hat{D}\rho_s \omega_{2t}dt \quad , \quad t>s $$ Here A, ...
2
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4answers
137 views

Finding general solution to DE subject to initial condition

How do we solve the following Differential Equation? $$2 x''' + xx'' =0$$ Subject to conditions: $$ x(0)=0$$ $$ x'(0)=0$$ $$ x'(\infty)=1$$ Is there any numerical method to solve it or some ...
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0answers
11 views

Solution of Transcendental equations, trigonometric ones

I am studying vibration of beams, with continuous properties; and I arrived to some kind of trascendental equations. The book I am using, (Chopra, 2014), says that one of the solution is the numerical ...
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29 views

backward propagation of errors

Suppose we have $L-1$ time intervals between $t_0$ and $t_{L}=T,$ i.e., $t_0<\ldots<t_l<\ldots<t_{L}=T.$ We have an error $e_{t_l}$ describing the absolute error difference between a real ...
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1answer
20 views

Bounding at Newton Divided Difference Formula

Let $a=x_0,x_1,...,x_n=b$ are $n+1$ points which are equally spaced in $[a,b]$. The distance between consecutive terms is $h= \frac{b-a}{n}$ and $x \in [a,b]$ Show that $ \biggr|\prod_{i=}^n (x-x_i) \...
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0answers
11 views

propagating error analysis

Tutor asked me a question about propagating error analysis: Here is the question: if for $t_0<t_1<\ldots<t_{l}<\ldots<T,$ $$e_{t_1}\leq e_1+e_2e_{t_{l+1}}+e_3,$$ and $$e_{T}\leq e_1+...
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0answers
47 views

How to program numerical integration $\int_t^{\infty}\frac{1}{(u+1)^2}du$?

I'm facing a problem when program the numerical integration of $\int_t^{\infty}\frac{1}{(u+1)^2}du$, I know that the true value is $\frac{1}{1+t}$, however, when I want to calculate the definite ...
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2answers
31 views

Obtaining expression for recursive sequence

Can someone suggest how to obtain an expression for $S[i]$ given that S[0] = 0, $S[i]=S[i-1]*(1-\gamma_i)^2 + \gamma_i^2$ where $\gamma_i = \frac{g+1}{g+i}$ EDIT: $g>0$ and $g$ can be assumed to ...
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1answer
17 views

Numerical Change of Variables

If I have $f(x)$ represented by 2 arrays. One array is the arrays of $x$ while the other is output from $f(x)$. So basically a numerical representation of the function. If I don't know what $f(x)$ is, ...
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1answer
27 views

Newton-Raphson on strictly convex function

Maybe someone can give me a hint here: question 1: Given a sequence {$x_n$} which is the Newton-Raphson sequence on some $f(x)$ s.t. $f(x)$ is strictly convex and $f'>0$. Let $\alpha$ be the ...
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1answer
23 views

Is it possible to evaluate error of numeric schemes by using integrals?

I'd just like to know if it is possible to evaluate the error of a numerical scheme by using it's solutions integral? To elaborate this. I have long transmission line, which I evaluate over time ...
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2answers
173 views

(Why) can we treat a function of a variable as another independent variable?

I'm currently reading my numerical analysis textbook and something's bugging me. To get into it, let's take a look at the following differential equation; $$u'(x) = f(x, u(x))$$ In order to ...
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0answers
40 views

Using the Newton's method to find the global minimum of a 2D problem with a constraint

I am solving an optimization problem $$\min f(x_1,x_2)\\ \text{s.t.}~~~~ c(x_1,x_2)\leq 0$$ In my problem, there are two min and two max and I am looking for the global min. I know that with the ...
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0answers
25 views

limit of the ratio of two divergent integrals

I have to calculate two ratios of two pairs of proper integrals, for a range of parameters. I am stuck when it comes to calculating these ratios when the parameters are such that the integrands start ...
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1answer
28 views

How I can to prove the succession $x_n$ converge to 1? [duplicate]

Let $0<x_0<1$ if $x_{n+1} = sin(x_n)$ show that $\lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{x_n}{\sqrt{3}/n} = 1$
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0answers
50 views

Approximating midpoint of a curve

I am wondering whether there is any general method of approximating the midpoint of a given curve, given the coordinates of the endpoints and the equation of the curve. I know the calculus method of ...
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2answers
45 views

Show that a series converge or diverge: $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac {(-1)^n(2n-1)!}{3^n}$

Check wether this converges or diverges $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac {(-1)^n(2n-1)!}{3^n}$ I have a couple of questions: Using Abel-Dirichlet criteria when you have $\sum_{k=1}^{n}b_k$ bounded and $a_n\...
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2answers
30 views

Convergence test for a series

Let S = $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}{\frac{n^k}{((n^3+n)^{\frac{1}{3}}-n)}},\forall\space\space\space\space k\in\mathbb{Z}.$ Say if this series converge of diverge. My attempt: $$S=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac{...
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3answers
38 views

Determining coefficients of a parametrization of an epicycloid given a predefined arc length.

I am trying to determine the coefficient q in the parametrization of a epicycloid which gives me the arc length of 4.25. The parametrization can be glimpsed in my attempt of a solution in the ...
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1answer
26 views

How to understand the order of convergence $\|x_{k+1} - x\| \le C \|x_k - x\|^p$ (Convergence of a power function form)?

By definition, a sequence $x_k \in \mathbb{R}, k \in \mathbb{N}$ converges with order $p \in [1,\infty)$ to $x := \lim_{k\to\infty} x_k$ if \begin{align} \exists C \in [0,\infty): \forall k \in \...
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0answers
34 views

Numerical integration with delta functions?

I would like to integrate the following numerically: $\int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \int\limits_{-\infty}^{+\infty} \delta(x^2+y^2-1) dx dy = \pi$ I could replace the dirac delta function with a ...
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0answers
8 views

The iteration,which is only locall convergent,does it has at least 2 fixed point?

When I draw the figure of the iteration which is just locally convergent,it feels like that ,there must be at least 2 fixed points.So, I have the hypothesis Assume $g(x)\in C^{1}(\mathbb{R})$,the ...
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0answers
32 views

Evaluate an integral using three-point Gaussian Quadrature

Write a procedure for evaluating $\int_{a}^{b}f(x)dx$ by subdividing the interval into $n$ equal sub-intervals and then using the three-point Gaussian Quadrature formula modified to apply it to the $n$...
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2answers
52 views

Give an exact expression for the doubling time of the function y = 80 (1.4)^x/4, and quote an approximate numerical value.

Give an exact expression for the doubling time of the function y = 80 (1.4)^x/4, and quote an approximate numerical value. what I did: y = 80 (1.4)^x/4 ...
2
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3answers
55 views

Numerical methods for solving nonlinear equations

I have this equation $x^{5}+x^{3}+3=0$ and I'm supposed to find one root with a given accuracy using the secant method. I was wondering how I can localize a solution to an interval so I can apply ...
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0answers
25 views

Optimal Values for a Taylor Series with Multiple Parameters

I'm taking a (fairly basic, but graduate level) numerical analysis class this semester and came across the below question: Construct a Taylor Table for: $$a_0(u_{xx})_{j-1} + (u_{xx})_j + a_2(u_{xx})...
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1answer
74 views

How to find second derivative as output of MATLAB ode45?

I am using ode45 function to find numerical solution for my system of equations, where I have 4 equations and 4 variables, with command: ...
0
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0answers
95 views

Order of convergence of midpoint rule

A problem asks to integrate the function $f(x) = \frac{x}{1+x^4}$ on $[-1, 2]$ using the Midpoint rule and the Trapezoidal rule, which I did in MATLAB. Then it asks to determine the value of this ...
1
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0answers
52 views

3D Gauss-Hermite Quadrature

Is it possible to examine a 3D integral by using Gauss-Hermite quadrature type technique? I mean there might be an equation like this (with analogy to 1D Gauss-Hermite quadrature): $\int_{-1}^{-1} \...
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1answer
102 views

Numerical integration with arbitrary precision

I have to perform a numerical integral on $[0,1]$ with a complicated integrand (possibly with integrable singularities at $0$ and/or $1$) and I am looking for a platform (sagemath, maple, python, ...