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# Questions tagged [number-theory]

Questions on more advanced topics of number theory, such as quadratic residues, primitive roots, prime numbers, non-linear Diophantine equations, etc. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

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### Different methods to compute $\sum\limits_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k^2}$ (Basel problem)

As I have heard people did not trust Euler when he first discovered the formula (solution of the Basel problem) $$\zeta(2)=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{1}{k^2}=\frac{\pi^2}{6}.$$ However, Euler was Euler ...
163k views

### Does Pi contain all possible number combinations?

I came across the following image: Which states: $\pi$ Pi Pi is an infinite, nonrepeating $($sic$)$ decimal - meaning that every possible number combination exists somewhere in pi. ...
26k views

### Is '$10$' a magical number or I am missing something?

It's a hilarious witty joke that points out how every base is '$10$' in its base. Like, 2 = 10 (base 2) 8 = 10 (base 8) My question is if whoever invented the ...
64k views

### What is the importance of the Collatz conjecture?

I have been fascinated by the Collatz problem since I first heard about it in high school. Take any natural number $n$. If $n$ is even, divide it by $2$ to get $n / 2$, if $n$ is odd multiply it by ...
29k views

### Is there an elementary proof that $\sum \limits_{k=1}^n \frac1k$ is never an integer?

If $n>1$ is an integer, then $\sum \limits_{k=1}^n \frac1k$ is not an integer. If you know Bertrand's Postulate, then you know there must be a prime $p$ between $n/2$ and $n$, so $\frac 1p$ ...
93k views

### Books on Number Theory for Layman [closed]

Books on Number Theory for anyone who loves Mathematics?(Beginner to Advanced & just for someone who has a basic grasp of math)
11k views

### How to show $e^{e^{e^{79}}}$ is not an integer

In this question, I needed to assume in my answer that $e^{e^{e^{79}}}$ is not an integer. Is there some standard result in number theory that applies to situations like this? After several years, ...
22k views

### Are 14 and 21 the only “interesting” numbers?

The numbers 14 and 21 are quite interesting. The prime factorisation of 14 is $2\cdot 7$ and the prime factorisation of $14+1$ is $3\cdot 5$. Note that 3 is the prime after 2 and 5 is the prime ...
8k views

### A variation of Fermat's little theorem in the form $a^{n-d}\equiv a$ (mod $p$).

Fermat's little theorem states that for $n$ prime, $$a^n \equiv a \pmod{n}.$$ The values of $n$ for which this holds are the primes and the Carmichael numbers. If we modify the congruence ...
14k views

### Is 2048 the highest power of 2 with all even digits (base ten)?

I have a friend who turned 32 recently. She has an obsessive compulsive disdain for odd numbers, so I pointed out that being 32 was pretty good since not only is it even, it also has no odd factors. ...
14k views

### Proof that ${\left(\pi^\pi\right)}^{\pi^\pi}$ (and now $\pi^{\left(\pi^{\pi^\pi}\right)}$ is a noninteger

Conor McBride asks for a fast proof that $$x = {\left(\pi^\pi\right)}^{\pi^\pi}$$ is not an integer. It would be sufficient to calculate a very rough approximation, to a precision of less than 1, and ...
33k views

### How to prove: if $a,b \in \mathbb N$, then $a^{1/b}$ is an integer or an irrational number?

It is well known that $\sqrt{2}$ is irrational, and by modifying the proof (replacing 'even' with 'divisible by $3$'), one can prove that $\sqrt{3}$ is irrational, as well. On the other hand, clearly ...
8k views

### How far can one get in analysis without leaving $\mathbb{Q}$?

Suppose you're trying to teach analysis to a stubborn algebraist who refuses to acknowledge the existence of any characteristic $0$ field other than $\mathbb{Q}$. How ugly are things going to get for ...
4k views

### Pythagorean triples that “survive” Euler's totient function

Suppose you have three positive integers $a, b, c$ that form a Pythagorean triple: $$a^2 + b^2 = c^2. \tag{1}\label{1}$$ Additionally, suppose that when you apply Euler's ...
6k views

### Do Arithmetic Mean and Geometric Mean of Prime Numbers converge?

I was looking at a list of primes. I noticed that $\frac{AM (p_1, p_2, \ldots, p_n)}{p_n}$ seemed to converge. This led me to try $\frac{GM (p_1, p_2, \ldots, p_n)}{p_n}$ which also seemed to ...
16k views

### The square roots of different primes are linearly independent over the field of rationals

I need to find a way of proving that the square roots of a finite set of different primes are linearly independent over the field of rationals. I've tried to solve the problem using elementary ...
6k views

### Is there any mathematical reason for this “digit-repetition-show”?

The number $$\sqrt{308642}$$ has a crazy decimal representation : $$555.5555777777773333333511111102222222719999970133335210666544640008\cdots$$ Is there any mathematical reason for so many ...
21k views

### Can $x^{x^{x^x}}$ be a rational number?

If $x$ is a positive rational number, but not an integer, then can $x^{x^{x^x}}$ be a rational number ? We can prove that if $x$ is a positive rational number but not an integer, then $x^x$ can not ...
11k views

### Infiniteness of non-twin primes.

Well, we all know the twin prime conjecture. There are infinitely many primes $p$, such that $p+2$ is also prime. Well, I actually got asked in a discrete mathematics course, to prove that there are ...
2k views

### Gross-Zagier formulae outside of number theory

(Edit: I have asked this question on MO.) The Gross-Zagier formula and various variations of it form the starting point in most of the existing results towards the Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer ...
3k views

### Is There An Injective Cubic Polynomial $\mathbb Z^2 \rightarrow \mathbb Z$?

Earlier, I was curious about whether a polynomial mapping $\mathbb Z^2\rightarrow\mathbb Z$ could be injective, and if so, what the minimum degree of such a polynomial could be. I've managed to ...
9k views

### A multiplication algorithm found in a book by Paul Erdős: how does it work?

I am trying to understand the following problem from Erdős and Surányi's Topics in the theory of numbers (Springer), chapter 1 ("Divisibility, the Fundamental Theorem of Number Theory"): We can ...
4k views

### Least prime of the form $38^n+31$

I search the least n such that $$38^n+31$$ is prime. I checked the $n$ upto $3000$ and found none, so the least prime of that form must have more than $4000$ digits. I am content with a probable ...
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18k views

### Different ways to prove there are infinitely many primes?

This is just a curiosity. I have come across multiple proofs of the fact that there are infinitely many primes, some of them were quite trivial, but some others were really, really fancy. I'll show ...
For example how come $\zeta(2)=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}n^{-2}=\frac{\pi^2}{6}$. It seems counter intuitive that you can add numbers in $\mathbb{Q}$ and get an irrational number.