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Questions tagged [number-theory]

Questions on more advanced topics of number theory, such as quadratic residues, primitive roots, prime numbers, non-linear Diophantine equations, etc. Consider first if (elementary-number-theory) might be a more appropriate tag before adding this tag.

6,555 questions with no upvoted or accepted answers
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83
votes
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Does every ring of integers sit inside a ring of integers that has a power basis?

Given a finite extension of the rationals, $K$, we know that $K=\mathbb{Q}[\alpha]$ by the primitive element theorem, so every $x \in K$ has the form $$x = a_0 + a_1 \alpha + \cdots + a_n \alpha^n,$$ ...
71
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1k views

$\frac{1}{n}$ as a difference of Egyptian fractions with all denominators $<n$

Is there a good characterization of the set $S$ of positive integers $n$ such that $\frac{1}{n}$ can be represented as a difference of Egyptian fractions with all denominators $< n$? For example, $...
46
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961 views

Can we remove any prime number with this strange process?

This is a little algorithm I made today, which may appear to be quite complex, so I will start with an example. Questions are at the end of the post. The process goes as follows: Start with the ...
45
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0answers
1k views

Finding primes so that $x^p+y^p=z^p$ is unsolvable in the p-adic units

On my number theory exam yesterday, we had the following interesting problem related to Fermat's last theorem: Suppose $p>2$ is a prime. Show that $x^p+y^p=z^p$ has a solution in $\mathbb{Z}_p^{\...
43
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1k views

A question about the divisibility of sum of 2 consecutive primes.

Well as I was curious about the sum of $2$ consecutive primes, after proving that the sum for the odd primes always has at least 3 prime divisors, I came up with this question: Find the least ...
41
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695 views

Dedekind Sum Congruences

For $a,b,c \in \mathbb{N}$, let $a^{\prime} = \gcd(b,c)$, $b^{\prime} = \gcd(a,c)$, $c^{\prime} = \gcd(a,b)$ and $d = a^{\prime} b^{\prime} c^{\prime}$. Define $\mathfrak{S}(a,b,c) = a^{\prime} \...
37
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872 views

Limit associated with a recursion

If $z_n < 2y_n$ then $y_{n+1} = 4y_n - 2z_n$ $z_{n+1} = 2z_n + 3$ Else $y_{n+1} = 4y_n$ $z_{n+1} = 2 z_n - 1$ Consider the following limit: $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty} \frac{1}{n}\left(z_{n+1}...
29
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504 views

$\forall n\in\mathbb N:n^x\in\mathbb Q$ implies $x\in\mathbb Z$ - elementary proof?

Consider the following two problems: Show that if for some $x\in\mathbb R$ and for each $n\in\mathbb N$ we have $n^x\in\mathbb N$, then $x\in\mathbb N$. Show that if for some $x\in\mathbb R$ ...
28
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898 views

Does the average primeness of natural numbers tend to zero?

Note 1: This questions requires some new definitions, namely "continuous primeness" which I have made. Everyone is welcome to improve the definition without altering the spirit of the question. Click ...
28
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0answers
750 views

Algorithm to find primes up to $n$ in $O\left(\frac{n}{\log n}\right)$?

Consider the problem of given an integer $n$, generating a list of the primes not greater than $n$. An optimized version of the Sieve of Eratosthenes can do such task in $O(n)$, while the more modern ...
28
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733 views

Using the Brun Sieve to show very weak approximation to twin prime conjecture

I recently stumbled across MIT OCW for analytic number theory. As a budding number theorist, my ears perked up and I looked through some of the material haphazardly. I don't really know much about ...
25
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593 views

Determinant of a matrix that contains the first $n^2$ primes.

Let $n$ be an integer and $p_1,\ldots,p_{n^2}$ be the first prime numbers. Writing them down in a matrix $$ \left(\begin{matrix} p_1 & p_2 & \cdots & p_n \\ p_{n+1} & p_{n+2} & \...
25
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435 views

Continued fraction with prime reciprocal entries

We know that the reciprocals of the primes form a divergent series. We also know that a necessary and sufficient condition for a continued fraction to converge is that its entries diverge as a series. ...
24
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717 views

Stronger versions of Wilson's Theorem

Problem Let $c \in \mathbb{N}$ $;$ $\exists$ a prime $p$ for which: $$p^c \mid (p-1)!+1$$ Does $\exists$ $M$ $\in$ $\mathbb{N}$ $;$ $\forall$ $c \geqslant M$ $;$ $\nexists$ $p$ ...
24
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552 views

Are there infinitely many primes of the form $12345678901234567890\dots$

Related to this question, What is the smallest prime number made of sequential number? are there infinitely many primes of the following form (OEIS A057137)? $1, 12, 123, 1234, 12345, 123456, ...
24
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0answers
299 views

Smallest Subset of $\mathbb{R}_{>0}$ Closed under Typical Operations

Let $S$ denote the smallest subset of $\mathbb{R}_{>0}$ which includes $1$, and is closed under addition, multiplication, reciprocation, and the function $x,y \in \mathbb{R}_{>0} \mapsto x^y.$ ...
23
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742 views

Has category theory solved major math problems?

I am new to category theory. Just wonder if category theory has solved any major math problems for other mathematics fields? or what are the major applications of the category theory ?, i.e has ...
22
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0answers
157 views

Iwahori versus Bruhat decompositions

I am faced with the following issue that I do not understand but seems contradictory, coming from the book of Roberts and Schmidt about $GSp(4)$. Consider a local non-archimedean field $F$, let $p$ be ...
22
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364 views

Class field theory for $p$-groups. (IV.6, exercise 3 from Neukirch's ANT.)

I will use notation as in a preious question of mine. This question is from Neukirch's book "Algebraic number theory," page 305, exercise 3. Notation for the problem Let $G$ be a profinite $p$-...
21
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335 views

How many ways can I arrange the numbers $1$ to $N$ with this divisibility condition?

For the numbers $1, \ldots, N$, how many ways can I arrange them such that either: The number at $i$ is evenly divisible by $i$, or $i$ is evenly divisible by the number at $i$. Example: for N = 2$, ...
21
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1k views

Can anyone improve on this work and find a closed form of $\zeta(3)$?

This was something I and another user came across independently, although he decided to post it on reddit. So while its already online, let me reproduce it here with the hope that someone will be able ...
21
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949 views

Are there unique solutions for $n=\sum_{j=1}^{g(k)} a_j^k$?

Edward Waring, asks whether for every natural number $n$ there exists an associated positive integer s such that every natural number is the sum of at most $s$ $k$th powers of natural numbers (...
20
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547 views

Dividing the whole into a minimal amount of parts to equally distribute it between different groups.

Suppose we have a finite amount of numbers $x_1, x_2, ..., x_n$ ($x_i\in\mathbb{N}$) and an object that should be divided into parts in such a way that it can be without further dividing distributed ...
18
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399 views

Does the sum of reciprocals of all prime-prefix-free numbers converge?

Call a positive integer $n$ prime-prefix-free if for all $k \ge 1$, $\lfloor \frac{n}{2^k} \rfloor$ is not an odd prime. (Odd because otherwise the property is trivial, as every integer greater than ...
17
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612 views

Conjecture---Identity for Sieve of Eratosthenes collisions.

Let $$\beta(n,k) = \max_{d \leq k}(d|n)$$ $$S(k)= \sum_{n=1}^{k!} \beta(n,k),$$ $\hspace{20mm}$and $$T(k)=\# \{ ~i\cdot j~~\big|_{i=1}^k \big|_{j=1}^{k!} \}$$ Does $$S(k)=T(k)?$$ See OEIS ...
17
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449 views

When does a modular form satisfy a differential equation with rational coefficients?

Given a modular form $f$ of weight $k$ for a congruence subgroup $\Gamma$, and a modular function $t$ for $\Gamma$ with $t(i\infty)=0$, we can form a function $F$ such that $F(t(z))=f(z)$ (at least ...
16
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0answers
299 views

**UNSOLVED** Find an integer $\geqslant2$ that is build up out of only $1$'s and $0$'s in base $1,\;\ldots,\;10$.

This riddle bothers me for a few weeks now and I'm starting to worry that I need some $p$-adic Number theory to solve this. I solve most of the riddles in a day, but this one is just annoying to me. I ...
16
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0answers
381 views

Convergence acceleration technique for $\zeta(4)$ (or $\eta(4)$) via creative telescoping?

Question Is it already known whether the $\zeta(4):=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}1/n^4$ accelerated convergence series $(1)$, proved for instance in [1, Corollaire 5.3], could be obtained by a similar ...
16
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211 views

The famous prime race and generalizations

So I was messing around with the famous prime race that comes down to this: We make a list of primes. The list has two rows; the top row is for primes $1\mod 4$ and the bottom row for primes $3\mod 4$...
16
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533 views

Relationship between intersection and compositum of fields

This issue came up in a number theory lecture today. Let $K$ be a number field and let $L/K$ be an abelian (finite Galois) extension. Then there exists a primitive $m$th root of unity $\zeta_m$ so ...
15
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0answers
268 views

Four squares such that the difference of any two is a square?

I. This post asks to find $4$ integers $a,b,c,d$ such that the difference between any two is a square. As mentioned by my answer, it is equivalent to finding $3$ squares such that the difference of ...
15
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0answers
198 views

Is every finite list of integers coprime to $n$ congruent $\pmod n$ to a list of consecutive primes?

For example the list $(2, 1, 2, 1)$ is congruent $\pmod 3$ to the consecutive primes $(5, 7, 11, 13)$. But how about the list $(1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,3,4,3,2,3,1) \mod 5$? More generally, we are given ...
15
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0answers
1k views

Matrix generated by prime numbers

Let $p$ be the vector of dimension $n^2$ consisting of ordered prime numbers i.e. $p= [ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 5 \ 7 \ldots]^T$ and $A$ be the matrix of dimension $n\times{n}$ constructed with this vector by ...
15
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0answers
287 views

Does the category of algebraically closed fields of characteristic $p$ change when $p$ changes?

EDIT I've now posted this question on mathoverflow. It probably makes sense to post answers over there, unless someone prefers posting here. Let $\mathrm{ACF}_p$ denote the category of algebraically ...
15
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0answers
442 views

Riemann zeta function Euler product for primes equivalent to $3$ mod $4$

Question: can $$ \zeta_1(s) = \prod_{p \equiv 3 \pmod{4}} \frac{1}{1 - p^{-s}} $$ be evaluated or written in terms of standard functions? Details: We can write the Riemann zeta function as \begin{...
15
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3k views

Motivation for Weil pairing

The Weil pairing $$e_\phi:E[\phi]\times E'[\hat{\phi}]\to \mu_n$$ for an elliptic curve is defined as follows. Let $\phi:E\to E'$ be an isogeny of degree $n$ and $\hat\phi:E'\to E$ be the dual ...
15
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1answer
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Proof of Legendre's theorem on the ternary quadratic form

Theorem (Legendre): Let $a,b,c$ coprime positive integers, then $ax^2 + by^2 = cz^2$ has a nontrivial solution in rationals $x,y,z$ iff $\left(\frac{-bc}{a}\right)=\left(\frac{-ac}{b}\right)=\left(\...
14
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0answers
358 views

Largest consecutive integer using basic operations and optimal digits?

If you are first time reading this, you may want to read the summary section last. Solution summary and questions Sequence values If the allowed operations are $(+,-,\times,\div)$ and parentheses $(...
14
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0answers
327 views

Proving $2+2^2/2+2^3/3+2^4/4+\cdots=0$ elementarily

In the first chapter of Gouvea's intro to $p$-adics, there's a heuristic argument that $$ \frac{2}{1}+\frac{2^2}{2}+\frac{2^3}{3}+\frac{2^4}{4}+\cdots=0 \tag{$\ast$}$$ as $2$-adic numbers, since it'...
14
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0answers
156 views

Numbers whose decimal digits are the coefficients of its continued fraction form

A curious question recently crossed my mind. And that is can we construct decimal numbers of the form $$\text{"a.bcdefghij..."}$$ where each letter represents a digit $0-9$ (the number may or may ...
14
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0answers
132 views

Is $\Phi(q)$ rational for some $q \in \mathbb{Q}^*$, where $\Phi$ is the standard normal cumulative distribution function?

Suppose that we have rational numbers $q_1$, $q_2$ such that $$\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi}}\int_{-\infty}^{q_1}e^{-\frac{t^2}{2}} \,\mathrm{d}t=q_2.$$ Does this imply that $q_1=0$ and $q_2=\dfrac{1}{2}$?
14
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0answers
359 views

Found an recursive identity (involving a continued fraction) for which some simplification is needed.

This is my second question in this forum; as I previously explained it, I am a "hobbyst" mathematician and not a professional one; I apologize by advance if something is wrong in my question. I enjoy ...
14
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0answers
727 views

Prime factor of $2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4$

I checked the prime factors of $$2 \uparrow \uparrow 4 + 3\uparrow \uparrow 4 = 2^{2^{2^2}} + 3^{3^{3^3}}$$ with trial division and found non below $8*10^9$ Nevertheless, the given number has still ...
13
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0answers
251 views

Number as the sum of digits of some degree

We will say that the measure of a number is equal to the maximum degree in which it is possible to represent a number in the form of a sum of digits copied (You can not rearrange the numbers). For ...
13
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1answer
205 views

if $2017 \mid\sum_{i=1}^{1000}x^k_{i}$,show $2017 \mid x_{i},\forall i=1,2,\ldots,1000$

Let $x_{i}(i=1,2,\ldots,1000)$ be integers,and for all postive integers $k\le 672$,such $$2017 \mid\sum_{i=1}^{1000}x^k_{i}$$ show that $$2017 \mid x_{i},\forall i=1,2,\ldots,1000$$ maybe is use ...
13
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0answers
212 views

What's special about the Mordell curve $y^2 = x^3+7823$?

In this MO comment, William Stein remarked that a "...spectacular example in which Heegner points fail in practice" is the Mordell curve, $$y^2 = x^3+N,\quad N = 7823$$ but doing a $4$-descent ...
13
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0answers
203 views

Does every power of two arise as the difference of two primes?

Conjecture: For each $n\in\mathbb N$ there are primes $q<p$ with $p-q=2^n$. Verified for $n\leq 26$: ...
13
votes
0answers
338 views

How to prove this $p^{j-\left\lfloor\frac{k}{p}\right\rfloor}\mid c_{j}$

Let $p$ be a prime number and $g\in \mathbb{Z}[x]$. Let $$\binom{x}{k}=\dfrac{x(x-1)(x-2)\cdots(x-k+1)}{k!} \in \mathbb{Q}[x]$$ for every $k \geq 0$. Fix an integer $k$. Write the integer-valued ...
13
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0answers
565 views

Showing that the Prime Number Theorem is Plausible.

I have started to work through the course notes titled "Integers, Polynomials and Finite Fields" by Kenneth Davidson to keep me busy this summer, and there is a question in here This is an exercise ...
13
votes
1answer
198 views

Why are cochains in group cohomology exact as a functor of the coefficients?

I am stuck with exercise $1$ of section $3$ of chapter $1$ in the book Cohomology of number fields by Neukirch. The exercise is to show that the functor from $A \rightarrow C^n(G,A)$ is exact, where $...