Questions tagged [matrices]

For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate and adjoint, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), invariant factors, quadratic forms, etc. For questions specifically concerning matrix equations, use the (matrix-equations) tag.

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What's an intuitive way to think about the determinant?

In my linear algebra class, we just talked about determinants. So far I’ve been understanding the material okay, but now I’m very confused. I get that when the determinant is zero, the matrix doesn’t ...
Jamie Banks's user avatar
454 votes
4 answers
256k views

What is the intuitive relationship between SVD and PCA?

Singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA) are two eigenvalue methods used to reduce a high-dimensional data set into fewer dimensions while retaining important ...
wickedchicken's user avatar
391 votes
34 answers
141k views

If $AB = I$ then $BA = I$

If $A$ and $B$ are square matrices such that $AB = I$, where $I$ is the identity matrix, show that $BA = I$. I do not understand anything more than the following. Elementary row operations. Linear ...
Dilawar's user avatar
  • 6,125
361 votes
11 answers
236k views

What is the importance of eigenvalues/eigenvectors?

What is the importance of eigenvalues/eigenvectors?
Ryan's user avatar
  • 5,509
351 votes
0 answers
21k views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices [closed]

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ $K_1=\left(\...
Eckhard's user avatar
  • 7,705
317 votes
9 answers
696k views

Is a matrix multiplied with its transpose something special?

In my math lectures, we talked about the Gram-Determinant where a matrix times its transpose are multiplied together. Is $A A^\mathrm T$ something special for any matrix $A$?
Martin Ueding's user avatar
280 votes
3 answers
16k views

How does one prove the determinant inequality $\det\left(6(A^3+B^3+C^3)+I_{n}\right)\ge 5^n\det(A^2+B^2+C^2)$?

Let $\,A,B,C\in M_{n}(\mathbb C)\,$ be Hermitian and positive definite matrices such that $A+B+C=I_{n}$, where $I_{n}$ is the identity matrix. Show that $$\det\left(6(A^3+B^3+C^3)+I_{n}\right)\ge 5^n \...
math110's user avatar
  • 93.4k
265 votes
7 answers
354k views

Eigenvectors of real symmetric matrices are orthogonal

Can someone point me to a paper, or show here, why symmetric matrices have orthogonal eigenvectors? In particular, I'd like to see proof that for a symmetric matrix $A$ there exists decomposition $A = ...
Phonon's user avatar
  • 4,028
240 votes
8 answers
140k views

What are the Differences Between a Matrix and a Tensor?

What is the difference between a matrix and a tensor? Or, what makes a tensor, a tensor? I know that a matrix is a table of values, right? But, a tensor?
Aurelius's user avatar
  • 2,801
227 votes
8 answers
247k views

Proof that the trace of a matrix is the sum of its eigenvalues

I have looked extensively for a proof on the internet but all of them were too obscure. I would appreciate if someone could lay out a simple proof for this important result. Thank you.
JohnK's user avatar
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223 votes
6 answers
16k views

Why does this matrix give the derivative of a function?

I happened to stumble upon the following matrix: $$ A = \begin{bmatrix} a & 1 \\ 0 & a \end{bmatrix} $$ And after trying a bunch of different examples, I noticed the ...
ASKASK's user avatar
  • 9,000
222 votes
13 answers
393k views

Inverse of the sum of matrices

I have two square matrices: $A$ and $B$. $A^{-1}$ is known and I want to calculate $(A+B)^{-1}$. Are there theorems that help with calculating the inverse of the sum of matrices? In general case $B^{-...
Tomek Tarczynski's user avatar
216 votes
5 answers
55k views

What is the geometric interpretation of the transpose?

I can follow the definition of the transpose algebraically, i.e. as a reflection of a matrix across its diagonal, or in terms of dual spaces, but I lack any sort of geometric understanding of the ...
Zed's user avatar
  • 2,161
211 votes
7 answers
351k views

Transpose of inverse vs inverse of transpose

Given a square matrix, is the transpose of the inverse equal to the inverse of the transpose? $$ (A^{-1})^T = (A^T)^{-1} $$
Void Star's user avatar
  • 2,555
207 votes
7 answers
16k views

How could we define the factorial of a matrix?

Suppose I have a square matrix $\mathsf{A}$ with $\det \mathsf{A}\neq 0$. How could we define the following operation? $$\mathsf{A}!$$ Maybe we could make some simple example, admitted it makes any ...
Enrico M.'s user avatar
  • 26.1k
191 votes
21 answers
382k views

Calculate Rotation Matrix to align Vector $A$ to Vector $B$ in $3D$?

I have one triangle in $3D$ space that I am tracking in a simulation. Between time steps I have the previous normal of the triangle and the current normal of the triangle along with both the current ...
user1084113's user avatar
  • 2,089
190 votes
14 answers
75k views

Intuition behind Matrix Multiplication

If I multiply two numbers, say $3$ and $5$, I know it means add $3$ to itself $5$ times or add $5$ to itself $3$ times. But If I multiply two matrices, what does it mean ? I mean I can't think it ...
Happy Mittal's user avatar
  • 3,247
183 votes
24 answers
71k views

Looking for an intuitive explanation why the row rank is equal to the column rank for a matrix

I am looking for an intuitive explanation as to why/how row rank of a matrix = column rank. I've read the proof on Wikipedia and I understand the proof, but I don't "get it". Can someone ...
hari_sree's user avatar
  • 2,091
156 votes
8 answers
242k views

Show that the determinant of $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues

Show that the determinant of a matrix $A$ is equal to the product of its eigenvalues $\lambda_i$. So I'm having a tough time figuring this one out. I know that I have to work with the characteristic ...
onimoni's user avatar
  • 6,376
155 votes
1 answer
13k views

Is the following matrix invertible?

$$\begin{bmatrix} 1235 &2344 &1234 &1990\\ 2124 & 4123& 1990& 3026 \\ 1230 &1234 &9095 &1230\\ 1262 &2312& 2324 &3907 \end{bmatrix}$$ Clearly, its ...
Yongkai's user avatar
  • 1,799
153 votes
11 answers
228k views

Is the inverse of a symmetric matrix also symmetric?

Let $A$ be a symmetric invertible matrix, $A^T=A$, $A^{-1}A = A A^{-1} = I$ Can it be shown that $A^{-1}$ is also symmetric? I seem to remember a proof similar to this from my linear algebra class, ...
gregmacfarlane's user avatar
145 votes
11 answers
162k views

Physical meaning of the null space of a matrix

What is an intuitive meaning of the null space of a matrix? Why is it useful? I'm not looking for textbook definitions. My textbook gives me the definition, but I just don't "get" it. E.g.: I think ...
user541686's user avatar
  • 13.8k
144 votes
10 answers
227k views

When is matrix multiplication commutative?

I know that matrix multiplication in general is not commutative. So, in general: $A, B \in \mathbb{R}^{n \times n}: A \cdot B \neq B \cdot A$ But for some matrices, this equations holds, e.g. A = ...
Martin Thoma's user avatar
  • 9,831
137 votes
4 answers
106k views

Prove $\operatorname{rank}A^TA=\operatorname{rank}A$ for any $A\in M_{m \times n}$

How can I prove $\operatorname{rank}A^TA=\operatorname{rank}A$ for any $A\in M_{m \times n}$? This is an exercise in my textbook associated with orthogonal projections and Gram-Schmidt process, but I ...
jaynp's user avatar
  • 2,151
130 votes
1 answer
101k views

Prove that simultaneously diagonalizable matrices commute

Two $n\times n$ matrices $A, B$ are said to be simultaneously diagonalizable if there is a nonsingular matrix $S$ such that both $S^{-1}AS$ and $S^{-1}BS$ are diagonal matrices. a) Show that ...
diimension's user avatar
  • 3,410
126 votes
3 answers
29k views

Why, historically, do we multiply matrices as we do?

Multiplication of matrices — taking the dot product of the $i$th row of the first matrix and the $j$th column of the second to yield the $ij$th entry of the product — is not a very ...
msh210's user avatar
  • 3,860
124 votes
11 answers
532k views

What does it mean to have a determinant equal to zero?

After looking in my book for a couple of hours, I'm still confused about what it means for a $(n\times n)$-matrix $A$ to have a determinant equal to zero, $\det(A)=0$. I hope someone can explain this ...
user2171775's user avatar
  • 1,375
119 votes
2 answers
125k views

Determinant of a non-square matrix

I wrote an answer to this question based on determinants, but subsequently deleted it because the OP is interested in non-square matrices, which effectively blocks the use of determinants and thereby ...
goblin GONE's user avatar
  • 67.8k
115 votes
13 answers
21k views

Why, intuitively, is the order reversed when taking the transpose of the product?

It is well known that for invertible matrices $A,B$ of the same size we have $$(AB)^{-1}=B^{-1}A^{-1} $$ and a nice way for me to remember this is the following sentence: The opposite of putting on ...
user1337's user avatar
  • 24.4k
114 votes
7 answers
36k views

Why is it important for a matrix to be square?

I am currently trying to self-study linear algebra. I've noticed that a lot of the definitions for terms (like eigenvectors, characteristic polynomials, determinants, and so on) require a square ...
Beneschan's user avatar
  • 1,083
112 votes
7 answers
113k views

Geometric interpretation of $\det(A^T) = \det(A)$

$$\det(A^T) = \det(A)$$ Using the geometric definition of the determinant as the area spanned by the columns, could someone give a geometric interpretation of the property?
dfg's user avatar
  • 3,891
104 votes
4 answers
68k views

Importance of matrix rank

What is the importance of the rank of a matrix? I know that the rank of a matrix is the number of linearly independent rows or columns (whichever is smaller). Why is it a problem if a matrix is rank ...
0x0's user avatar
  • 2,651
101 votes
9 answers
45k views

Why is the product of two rotation matrices not commutative?

Is there any intuition why rotational matrices are not commutative? I assume the final rotation is the combination of all rotations. Then how does it matter in which order the rotations are applied?
Navin Prashath's user avatar
101 votes
4 answers
21k views

Why did no student correctly find a pair of $2\times 2$ matrices with the same determinant and trace that are not similar?

I gave the following problem to students: Two $n\times n$ matrices $A$ and $B$ are similar if there exists a nonsingular matrix $P$ such that $A=P^{-1}BP$. Prove that if $A$ and $B$ are two ...
Taladris's user avatar
  • 11.4k
96 votes
4 answers
94k views

Are the eigenvalues of $AB$ equal to the eigenvalues of $BA$?

First of all, am I being crazy in thinking that if $\lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $AB$, where $A$ and $B$ are both $N \times N$ matrices (not necessarily invertible), then $\lambda$ is also an ...
dantswain's user avatar
  • 1,125
94 votes
4 answers
156k views

A matrix and its transpose have the same set of eigenvalues/other version: $A$ and $A^T$ have the same spectrum

Let $ \sigma(A)$ be the set of all eigenvalues of $A$. Show that $ \sigma(A) = \sigma\left(A^T\right)$ where $A^T$ is the transpose matrix of $A$.
Zizo's user avatar
  • 1,841
94 votes
0 answers
3k views

Probability for an $n\times n$ matrix to have only real eigenvalues

Let $A$ be an $n\times n$ random matrix where every entry is i.i.d. and uniformly distributed on $[0,1]$. What is the probability that $A$ has only real eigenvalues? The answer cannot be $0$ or $1$, ...
Exodd's user avatar
  • 10.9k
93 votes
11 answers
8k views

Why does Friedberg say that the role of the determinant is less central than in former times?

I am taking a proof-based introductory course to Linear Algebra as an undergrad student of Mathematics and Computer Science. The author of my textbook (Friedberg's Linear Algebra, 4th Edition) says in ...
dacabdi's user avatar
  • 1,208
92 votes
3 answers
141k views

Given this transformation matrix, how do I decompose it into translation, rotation and scale matrices?

I have this problem from my Graphics course. Given this transformation matrix: $$\begin{pmatrix} -2 &-1& 2\\ -2 &1& -1\\ 0 &0& 1\\ \end{pmatrix}$$ I need to extract ...
metavers's user avatar
  • 921
91 votes
7 answers
52k views

Geometric interpretation for complex eigenvectors of a 2×2 rotation matrix

The rotation matrix $$\pmatrix{ \cos \theta & \sin \theta \\ -\sin \theta & \cos \theta}$$ has complex eigenvalues $\{e^{\pm i\theta}\}$ corresponding to eigenvectors $\pmatrix{1 \\i}$ and $\...
Alf's user avatar
  • 2,597
88 votes
12 answers
79k views

Why determinant of a 2 by 2 matrix is the area of a parallelogram?

Let $A=\begin{bmatrix}a & b\\ c & d\end{bmatrix}$. How could we show that $ad-bc$ is the area of a parallelogram with vertices $(0, 0),\ (a, b),\ (c, d),\ (a+b, c+d)$? Are the areas of the ...
user avatar
88 votes
6 answers
6k views

Alice and Bob play the determinant game

Alice and Bob play the following game with an $n \times n$ matrix, where $n$ is odd. Alice fills in one of the entries of the matrix with a real number, then Bob, then Alice and so forth until the ...
pad's user avatar
  • 3,017
87 votes
12 answers
215k views

How to show that $\det(AB) =\det(A) \det(B)$?

Given two square matrices $A$ and $B$, how do you show that $$\det(AB) = \det(A) \det(B)$$ where $\det(\cdot)$ is the determinant of the matrix?
Learner's user avatar
  • 2,706
85 votes
5 answers
112k views

Are all eigenvectors, of any matrix, always orthogonal?

I have a very simple question that can be stated without any proof. Are all eigenvectors, of any matrix, always orthogonal? I am trying to understand principal components and it is crucial for me to ...
Bober02's user avatar
  • 2,566
83 votes
6 answers
40k views

Why is the determinant the volume of a parallelepiped in any dimensions?

For $n = 2$, I can visualize that the determinant $n \times n$ matrix is the area of the parallelograms by actually calculating the area by coordinates. But how can one easily realize that it is true ...
ahala's user avatar
  • 3,020
82 votes
5 answers
78k views

Derivative of the inverse of a matrix

In a scientific paper, I've seen the following $$\frac{\delta K^{-1}}{\delta p} = -K^{-1}\frac{\delta K}{\delta p}K^{-1}$$ where $K$ is a $n \times n$ matrix that depends on $p$. In my calculations I ...
Sara's user avatar
  • 1,027
82 votes
8 answers
20k views

How many connected components does $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ have?

I've noticed that $\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R)$ is not a connected space, because if it were $\det(\mathrm{GL}_n(\mathbb R))$ (where $\det$ is the function ascribing to each $n\times n$ matrix its ...
Bartek's user avatar
  • 6,265
80 votes
6 answers
25k views

Intuitive explanation of a positive semidefinite matrix

What is an intuitive explanation of a positive-semidefinite matrix? Or a simple example which gives more intuition for it rather than the bare definition. Say $x$ is some vector in space and $M$ is ...
user avatar
80 votes
4 answers
113k views

What is the difference between the Frobenius norm and the 2-norm of a matrix?

Given a matrix, is the Frobenius norm of that matrix always equal to the 2-norm of it, or are there certain matrices where these two norm methods would produce different results? If they are ...
Ricket's user avatar
  • 1,171
80 votes
2 answers
3k views

Factorial of a matrix: what could be the use of it?

Recently on this site, the question was raised how we might define the factorial operation $\mathsf{A}!$ on a square matrix $\mathsf{A}$. The answer, perhaps unsurprisingly, involves the Gamma ...
Oliphaunt's user avatar
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