Stack Exchange Network

Stack Exchange network consists of 174 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers.

Visit Stack Exchange

Questions tagged [matrices]

For any topic related to matrices. This includes: systems of linear equations, eigenvalues and eigenvectors (diagonalization, triangularization), determinant, trace, characteristic polynomial, adjugate and adjoint, transpose, Jordan normal form, matrix algorithms (e.g. LU, Gauss elimination, SVD, QR), invariant factors, quadratic forms, etc. For questions specifically concerning matrix equations, use the (matrix-equations) tag.

180
votes
0answers
10k views

Limit of sequence of growing matrices

Let $$ H=\left(\begin{array}{cccc} 0 & 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 1/2 & 0 \\ 1/2 & 0 & 0 & 1/2\\ 0 & 1/2 & 1/2 & 0 \end{array}\right), $$ $K_1=\left(\...
20
votes
0answers
1k views

How do I find the common invariant subspaces of a span of matrices?

Let $G_1, \ldots, G_n$ be a set of $m\times m$ linearly-independent complex matrices. Let $\mathcal{G} = \operatorname{span}\left\{ G_1, \ldots , G_n\right\}$ be the vector space that spans the set ...
20
votes
0answers
748 views

Determining the kernel of a Vandermonde-like matrix

The kernel of a Vandermonde matrix can be determined using this formula. The following type of matrix has a similar structure, and should also have a one-dimensional kernel. $$V= \begin{bmatrix} ...
18
votes
0answers
381 views

What does the ideal norm of matrix elements really mean?

Say we have a number field $K$ (specifically, an imaginary quadratic field) and a $2\times2$ matrix $\sigma=\pmatrix{a&c\\b&d}$ with elements $a,b,c,d\in\mathcal O_k$, the ring of integers of $...
16
votes
0answers
313 views

Can some proof that $\det(A) \ne 0$ be checked faster than matrix multiplication?

We can compute a determinant of an $n \times n$ matrix in $O(n^3)$ operations in several ways, for example by LU decomposition. It's also known (see, e.g., Wikipedia) that if we can multiply two $n \...
15
votes
0answers
744 views

Conjecture about normal matrices with magnitude symmetry

Given a complex, normal matrix A such that $|A_{ij}| = |A_{ji}|$ for all i,j I conjecture that A must either be of the form: 1) $e^{i\theta}H$ where H is a hermitian matrix and $\theta$ is real. (...
15
votes
0answers
882 views

Matrix generated by prime numbers

Let $p$ be the vector of dimension $n^2$ consisting of ordered prime numbers i.e. $p= [ 1 \ 2 \ 3 \ 5 \ 7 \ldots]^T$ and $A$ be the matrix of dimension $n\times{n}$ constructed with this vector by ...
14
votes
0answers
216 views

Find the cardinality of a subset of $GL_n( \bf F_p)$

Let $m,n \in \bf N$.Let $\bf F_p$ denote the prime field of characteristic $p$.Consider the set $$ X_m = \{A \in GL_n( {\bf F_p}): A^m=1 \}$$ Compute the cardinality of $X_m$. Its clear that $\vert ...
12
votes
0answers
6k views

Simpson's Rule for Double Integrals

Simpson's Rule for double integrals: $$\int_a^b\int_c^df(x,y) \,dx \,dy$$ is given by $$S_{mn}=\frac{(b-a)(d-c)}{9mn} \sum_{i,j=0,0}^{m,n} W_{i+1,j+1} f(x_i,y_j) $$ where: $$W= \begin{pmatrix} 1&...
12
votes
0answers
447 views

Matrix diagonalization theorems and counterexamples: reference-request.

I'm looking for exhaustive list of diagonalization theorems and counterexamples in linear algebra. In this question I understand the question of matrix diagonalization very broadly: suppose we have ...
12
votes
0answers
957 views

Inverse of Toeplitz Matrix Property

Sorry if this question has been asked already but I didn't find it. Given a symmetric Toeplitz matrix of the form $$\left[\begin{array}{llll} a_0 & a_1 & \dots & a_n\\ a_1 & a_0 &...
12
votes
0answers
815 views

Pfaffian properties

Given a $2n\times 2n$ real skew-symmetric matrix $A$, its Pfaffian $\mathrm{Pf}$ is defined as: $$ \mathrm{Pf}(A) = \frac1{2^n n!}\sum_{\sigma\in S_{2n}}\mathrm{sgn}(\sigma)\prod_{i=1}^n A_{\sigma(2i-...
11
votes
0answers
296 views

A conjecture on the Lyapunov equation

Let $A\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be a Hurwitz stable matrix (i.e., all the eigenvalues of $A$ have strictly negative real part). Let $X\in\mathbb{R}^{n\times n}$ be a positive semi-definite matrix of ...
11
votes
0answers
207 views

Finding the ratio between two $8$-dimensional volumes

EDIT: At this point, geometric interpretations of conditions 2-4 would qualify as an answer. This can include symmetries of the region. I have a real $3 \times 3$ matrix $A$ with entries $a_{ij},$ ...
11
votes
0answers
240 views

Closeness the eigenvalues of a Matrix to a list of numbers

Let $A,B\in M_n(\mathbb R)$, and $\ell$ a list of $n$ numbers sorted in some order (say, decreasing). Let $\lambda_i(A)$ be the $i$th eigenvalue of $A$ with respect to the chosen order. Finally, let ...
11
votes
0answers
289 views

Can the Riemann hypothesis be relaxed to say that this matrix A consists of square roots?

I realize that asking this question is like presenting to a patent attorney a wheel-less skateboard while asking to patent a hoverboard. Anyways. Lagarias version of the Riemann hypothesis sets a ...
10
votes
0answers
257 views

Bounding the minimum singular value of a block triangular matrix

Question: What is the sharpest known lower bound for the minimum singular value of the block triangular matrix $$M:=\begin{bmatrix} A & B \\ 0 & D \end{bmatrix}$$ in terms of the properties ...
10
votes
0answers
355 views

Flipping Summation of Kronecker Products

Question Suppose $\mathbf A$ is an $n\times n$ matrix, and that $\mathbf B_i$ is an $m\times m$ matrix, for all $i\in\{1,\dots, n\}$. Is it possible to find $n\times n$ matrices $\mathbf U$ and $\...
10
votes
0answers
209 views

How to solve linear system of form $(A \otimes B + C^{T}C)x = b$ when $A \otimes B$ is too large to compute?

For the given linear system: $$(A \otimes B + C^{T}C)x = b$$ where $\otimes$ is the Kronecker product, $A$ and $B$ are dense and symmetric positive-definite, and $C^{T}C$ is a sparse symmetric block ...
10
votes
0answers
297 views

Uniqueness of an infinite system of linear ODEs

How to prove that $\dot{x}=ax,\space x(0)=1$ has a unique solution if $a,x$ are infinite dimensional matrices? More specifically, let $Q$ be a bounded infinitesimal generator, i.e. $Q=(q_{i,j})_{i,j\...
10
votes
0answers
433 views

Representation for Vandermonde's permanent

Permanent of a matrix A = $\|a_{i,j}\|_{i,j=1}^{n}$ is defined as $$ \mathrm{Perm}(A) = \sum\limits_{\sigma \in S_{n}} a_{1,\sigma_{1}},\ldots,a_{n,\sigma_{n}} $$ Is there some representation for ...
9
votes
0answers
147 views

Reference request: arranging distinct numbers into a full rank matrix

I thought of the following problem: Let $n\ge 2$. Suppose you have $n^2$ distinct numbers in some field. Is it necessarily possible to arrange the numbers into an $n\times n$ matrix of full ...
9
votes
0answers
99 views

What is $\ \overline{\bigcup_{p≥ 1}\ \{A\in M_n(\mathbb C), \ A^p = I_n\}} \ $?

Let $\Gamma_p = \{A\in M_n(\mathbb C), A^p = I_n\}$ and let $\Gamma = \bigcup_{p≥ 1}\ \Gamma_p$. What is the closure of $\Gamma$ ? (This is from an oral exam). Let $B \in M_n(\mathbb C)$ such that ...
9
votes
0answers
142 views

Matrix exponential, containing a thermal state

Define an infinite matrix $$ M = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & -1 & 0 & 0 & \cdots \\ 1 & 0 & -2 & 0 & \cdots \\ 0 & 2 & 0 & -3 & \cdots \\ 0 & 0 & 3 &...
8
votes
0answers
234 views

When does $S \cap GL_4(\mathbb R)$ have precisely two connected components where $S \subset M_4(\mathbb R)$ is a linear subspace?

This is related to the question How many connected components for the intersection $S \cap GL_n(\mathbb R)$ where $S \subset M_n(\mathbb R)$ is a linear subspace? I asked. There is a nice example in ...
8
votes
0answers
291 views

Polynomial approximation to formal power series matrix

I noticed that starting with a $2 {\times} 2$ matrix $M$ with a handful of polynomial entries in two variables such that $\det M$ is invertible in $\mathbb C [x] [[y]]$ I can add infinitely many terms ...
8
votes
0answers
141 views

The practical usage of Arnold Matrix Trace Theorem

I would like to ask about the Arnold's Matrix Trace theorem: $$\textrm{tr}\big(A^{p^k}\big)\equiv\textrm{tr}\big(A^{p^{k-1}}\big)\ (\!\!\bmod {p^k}).$$ This theorem looks fantastic to me. But is ...
8
votes
0answers
4k views

Matrix multiplication of columns times rows instead of rows times columns

In ordinary matrix multiplication $AB$ where we multiply each column $b_{i}$ by $A$, each resulting column of $AB$ can be viewed as a linear combination of $A$. If however if we decided to multiply ...
7
votes
0answers
138 views

Meaning cone,ray, fan for polytopes

I'm trying to understand some mathematical operations and definitions for my project. Could you explain the meanings? $P_b ={x∈R^d : Ax≤b}$ is a polytope. Let's have a 10x3 matrix $Ax≤b$ $$ \begin{...
7
votes
0answers
145 views

Theorem 2.20 in Friedberg's Linear Algebra

Theorem 2.20 Let $V$ and $W$ be finite-dimensional vector spaces over $F$ of dimensions $n$ and $m$, respectively, and let $\beta$ and $\gamma$ be ordered bases for $V$ and $W$, respectively. Then the ...
7
votes
0answers
473 views

Number of permutations of matrices with unique rows and columns

Consider an $m$ by $n$ matrix filled with integers in $\left[0, b\right[$. There would be $b^{mn}$ possible matrices. Two matrices would be considered equivalent (in this system) iff you can switch ...
7
votes
0answers
128 views

Sequential square packings

There are various studies for packing sequential squares of size $1$ to $n$. We can try to find the smallest square they will pack into, as in tightly packed squares. We can find the smallest square ...
7
votes
0answers
159 views

Simplifying Trace of a Matrix Expression ${\rm Tr} \left( (I- D^{-1} BA^2) B (I- D^{-1} BA^2)^T \right)$

Let $B$ be a symmetric invertible matrix and let $A$ be a diagonal matrix with non-zero entries on the main diagonal. I am trying to simplify the following expression \begin{align} {\rm Tr} \left( ...
7
votes
0answers
230 views

A conjecture on Schatten 1-norm

I have a conjecture on Schatten 1-norm. Before presenting the conjecture, let us first specify the notions used here. A matrix $A$ is said to be a density operator if $A$ is positive semidefinite ...
7
votes
0answers
2k views

Upper bound on Frobenius norm of inverse of positive definite, symmetric matrix

Let $\Sigma$ be a symmetric, positive definite $n \times n$ matrix. I want an upper bound on the Frobenius norm of $\Sigma^{-1}$ that does not involve calculating the determinant of $\Sigma$. The ...
7
votes
0answers
2k views

Sylvester's criterion for negative semidefinite matrices

Is there a Sylvester's criterion for negative semidefinite matrices? I suspect such a criterion to be: All principal minors with odd dimension are non-positive. All principal minors with even ...
7
votes
0answers
2k views

Is a symmetric positive definite matrix always diagonally dominant?

A Hermitian diagonally dominant matrix $A$ with real non-negative diagonal entries is positive semidefinite. Is it possible to have a Hermitian matrix be positive semidefinite/definite and not be ...
7
votes
0answers
352 views

Hadamard matrices and sub-matrices (Converse of Sylvester Construction)

Let $H$ be a $d$ by $d$ real Hadamard matrix, namely: $$HH^{T}=d I$$ where $I$ is the identity matrix and $d=2^{k}$ for some natural number $k\geq 2$. The entries of $H$ are either $1$ or $-1$ and it ...
7
votes
0answers
191 views

Exactly $n-1$ nonzero elements if $\det(A)=0$ for every arrangement

Let $x_1,x_2,\dots,x_{n^2}\in\mathbb{R}$ with the property that any $n\times n$ matrix with exactly these elements has determinant $0$. Suppose also that there are at least $n$ distinct elements. ...
7
votes
0answers
266 views

Proof of the conjecture that the kernel is of dimension 2, extended

Pursuing my research, I am now looking for a proof of an extension of the problem proposed here and answered. It's an extension in the sense that I'm now considering two different $t_1$ and $t_2$. The ...
7
votes
0answers
1k views

Why matrix representation of convolution cannot explain the convolution theorem?

A record saying that Convolution Theorem is trivial since it is identical to the statement that convolution, as Toeplitz operator, has fourier eigenbasis and, therefore, is diagonal in it, has ...
7
votes
0answers
510 views

Condition of an eigenvector problem

Please, somebody help me with this problem. [Ciarlet 2.3-5] Let ${A}$ and ${B} = {A} + \delta{A}$ be two symmetric matrices with eigenvalues $$\alpha_1\ \leq\ \alpha_2\ \leq\ \ldots\ \leq\ \alpha_n\;...
6
votes
0answers
804 views

Some concrete examples of $M_q(2)$ points

Given $q \in C$ invertible, Kassel says that a $M_q(2)$ point of an $R$ algebra is a $m=\left(\begin{array}{cc} A & B\\ C & D \end{array}\right)\in R^{4}$ such that $A,\,B,\,C,\,D \in R$ ...
6
votes
0answers
35 views

Number of n X n binary matrices with every 1 adjacent to some zero and every 0 adjacent to some one, horizontally or vertically.

I came across this integer sequence: A133792. It represents the number of $n\times n$ binary matrices with every 1 adjacent to some zero and every 0 adjacent to some one, horizontally or vertically. ...
6
votes
0answers
61 views

Triangularization of matrix over PID

Let $R$ be a PID and let $A \in Mat_n(R)$ with all of its eigenvalues in R. Is it true that I can always find $P \in GL_n(R)$ such that $P^{-1}AP$ is uppertriangular? If so can I have a reference ...
6
votes
0answers
172 views

A Matrix Norm Inequality $\|A^{1/2}B^{1/2}(A+B)^{-1/2}\|_F \geq \|A^{1/2}(A+B)^{-1/2}B^{1/2}\|_F$

Let $\|X\|_F:= \sqrt{\text{Tr} \left(XX^\dagger\right) }$ denote the Frobenius norm. Does anyone know how to show the norm inequality: $\left\|A^{\frac12}B^{\frac12}(A+B)^{-\frac12}\right\|_F \geq ...
6
votes
0answers
216 views

Construct a matrix of polynomials to optimize condition-like score

I'm a physicist currently working on my PhD. Within my studies, my colleagues & I encountered a (strictly mathematical) problem that baffles us (and anyone else we've talked to so far) and is also ...
6
votes
0answers
427 views

Can I go from the LU factorization of a symmetric matrix to its Cholesky factorization, without starting over?

I mistakenly computed the LU factorization and then realized that the question is asking for a Cholesky factorization, i.e., finding a lower triangular matrix L such that the symmetric matrix A has ...
6
votes
0answers
403 views

What do the eigenvalues/vectors of a metric describe?

Given a finite metric space $(X = \{ x_i \}_{i=1}^n,d)$, one can form the matrix $A$ of pairwise distances $a_{ij} = d(x_i, x_j)$. What does the eigenspectrum of this matrix say about the metric $d$? ...
6
votes
0answers
98 views

Birkhoff representation of a stochastic matrix

From the Birkhoff theorem, it is known that every doubly stochastic matrix can be written as a convex combination of permutation matrices, although this representation might not be unique. Assume ...