# Questions tagged [jordan-normal-form]

This tag is for questions relating to the Jordan normal form, also known as a Jordan canonical form or JCF of a matrix which is a similar block matrix having diagonal blocks when the matrix is diagonalizable and diagonal + nilpotent blocks more generally.

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### Prove that $V = \ker(\phi^n) \oplus \text{image}(\phi^n)$

Let $V$ be a $n$-dimensional complex vector space and $\phi:V\to V$ a linear mapping. Prove that $$V = \ker(\phi^n) \oplus \text{image}(\phi^n)$$ Here is my attempt: Since $\phi^n$ is also a linear ...
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### The exponential of a Jordan block

Is it true that the exponential of a Jordan block is an upper triangular matrix? I tried two examples and got just diagonal matrices which may be a coincidence, as diagonal matrices are also upper/...
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### Finding $P$ in $A = P^{-1}JP$ (Jordan Form)

I'm having a lot of trouble understanding the process of finding a basis for the Jordan canonical form (the "algorithm"). My textbook (Friedberg 4E) isn't very clear, and I can't seem to find anything ...
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### Finding Jordan form

Find Jordan form of the following matrix: $$\left(\begin{matrix}4&-5&2 \\ 5&-7&3\\ 6&-9&4 \end{matrix}\right)$$ So I got stuck pretty much trying to find the eigenvalues. ...
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### Why does this matrix give the derivative of a function?

I happened to stumble upon the following matrix: $$A = \begin{bmatrix} a & 1 \\ 0 & a \end{bmatrix}$$ And after trying a bunch of different examples, I noticed the ...
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### Jordan form of a power of Jordan block?

How, in general, does one find the Jordan form of a power of a Jordan block? Because of the comments on this question I think there is a simple answer.
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### Finding Jordan Canonical form given the minimal and characteristic polynomial.

I have the following information: the characteristic polynomial of $A$ is $p_A(t)=(t-4)^3(t+6)^2$ and the minimal polynomial is $q_A(t)=(t-4)^2(t+6).$ I'm having problems seeing how one would work ...
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### Possible Jordan Canonical Forms Given Minimal Polynomial

I was supposed to find all possible Jordan canonical forms of a $5\times 5$ complex matrix with minimal polynomial $(x-2)^2(x-1)$ on a qualifying exam last semester. I took the polynomial to mean ...
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### Finding the Jordan canonical form of this upper triangular $3\times3$ matrix

I am supposed to find the Jordan canonical form of a couple of matrices, but I was absent for a few lectures. \begin{bmatrix} 1 & 1 & 0 \\ 0 & 1 & 2 \\ 0 & 0 & 3 \end{...
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### Similar Matrices and their Jordan Canonical Forms [duplicate]

Let $A$ and $B$ be two matrices in $M_n$. Is the following ture: $A$ and $B$ are similar $\iff$ $A$ and $B$ have the same jordan canonical form. Could someone explain?
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### Proof for real Jordan canonical form

Let $A \in \operatorname{Mat}(n\times n, \mathbb{R})$ be a matrix that is diagonalizable in $\mathbb C$ with $k$ real eigenvalues of algebraic multiplicity $1$ and $(n-k)/2$ pairs of complex-...
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### A linear map $T: \mathbb{R^3 \to \mathbb{R^3}}$ has a two dimensional invariant subspace.

Let $T: \mathbb{R^3 \to \mathbb{R^3}}$ be an $\mathbb{R}$-linear map. Then I want to show that $T$ has a $2$ dimensional invariant subspace of $\mathbb{R^3}.$ I considered all possible minimal ...
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### AB and BA have identical nonsingular Jordan blocks

If A and B are square matrices of the same size I know how to show that AB and BA have the same eigenvalues and characteristic polynomials. But I want to show that they have identical nonsingular ...
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### If $(A-2I)^3(A+2I)^2=0$, then what are the possible Jordan canonical forms of $A$?

Here is the exercise: Let $A$ be a $5\times5$ complex matrix such that $(A-2)^3(A+2)^2=0$, where we define $A-\mu:=A-\mu I$ for scalar $\mu$. Assume that $\lambda=2$ is an eigenvalue of $A$ and its ...
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### Uniqueness of the Jordan decomposition

I have seen it said that a matrix $M$ (over $\mathbb{C}$, say) has a unique decomposition $M = D + N$ where $D$ is diagonal and $N$ is nilpotent. I'm having trouble seeing this, since the Jordan form ...
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### prove that for any nonsingular matrix $A$ there exist $X$ such that $X^2=A$

Prove that given any matrix A, where $$\det(A)\neq0$$ $$A\in M_{n,n}(\mathbb C)$$ the following equation $$X^2=A$$ always has a solution. Should I do something with Jordan Normal form? Any help will ...
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### If N is elementary nilpotent matrix, show that N Transpose is similar to N

If $N$ is a $k \times k$ elementary nilpotent matrix, i.e. $N^k = 0$ but $N^{k-1} \ne 0$, then show that $N^\top$ is similar to $N$. Now use the Jordan form to prove that every complex $n \times n$ ...
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### The index of nilpotency of a nilpotent matrix

Let $A$ a matrix in $\mathcal{M}_5(\mathbb C)$ such that $A^5=0$ and $\mathrm{rank}(A^2)=2$, how prove that $A$ is nilpotent with index of nilpotency $4$? Thanks in advance.
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### $2\times2$ matrix $A$ such that $A$ has one independent eigenvector while $A^{2}$ has two independent eigenvectors

Give an example of $2\times2$ matrix $A$ such that $A$ has one independent eigenvector while $A^{2}$ has two independent eigenvectors. I would like to know a systematic answer of how to get this. My ...
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### How to determine the Jordan form and give a Jordan base for a matrix?

given is $\begin{pmatrix} 3&0&-1&0&0 \\ 1&3&0&1&0 \\ 0&0&3&0&0 \\ 0&0&0&3&0 \\ 0&0&0&0&-3 \end{pmatrix}$ I have to ...
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### Superdiagonal for the Jordan form of a Jordan block power

The question is an extension of the Prove that $A$ is similar to $A^n$ based on A's Jordan form. Let $J$ be Jordan block of any form. In what circumstances Jordan form of power $J^n$ has the ...
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So, I am given the matrix in standard basis $$A =\begin{bmatrix}-3&1&3&3\\-10&2&9&9\\-4&0&5&4\\2&1&-3&-2\end{bmatrix}$$ characteristic polynomial is $(λ−... 0 votes 1 answer 2k views ### Computation of transformation matrix for jordan normal form: how to choose eigenvectors During this semester at university we we're introduced to the jordan normal form of a matrix. While we never wrote down an explicit algorithm of how to find the matrix$B$, such that$B^{-1}AB$is a ... • 11.8k 53 votes 4 answers 10k views ### An intuitive approach to the Jordan Normal form I want to understand the meaning behind the Jordan Normal form, as I think this is crucial for a mathematician. As far as I understand this, the idea is to get the closest representation of an ... 12 votes 1 answer 3k views ### Jordan-Chevalley vs Jordan normal decomposition I am confused about a proof of the Jordan-Chevalley decomposition I was reading in Peterson's linear algebra book. Let$T : V \to V$be an$n$-dimensional operator on a complex vector space. The ... • 8,870 11 votes 2 answers 3k views ### Jordan form step by step general algorithm So I am trying to compile a summary of the procedure one should follow to find the Jordan basis and the Jordan form of a matrix, and I am on the lookout for free resources online where the algorithm ... • 4,488 4 votes 2 answers 6k views ### Why is the geometric multiplicity of an eigen value equal to number of jordan blocks corresponding to it? Geometric multiplicity of an eigen value is $$\dim \mathrm{null} (A -\lambda I)\tag 1.$$ Suppose$A$is in jordan normal form and has two Jordan forms with eigen value$\lambda$, one of size$2 \...
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I was wondering: if I were given a matrix $A$, I could calculate its Jordan canonical form. If I considered then $A^2$, I could say that if $\lambda$ is an eigenvalue of $A$, then $\lambda^2$ is an ...