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Questions tagged [integer-partitions]

Use this tag for questions related to ways of writing a positive integer as a sum of positive integers.

59
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1answer
2k views

Why are asymptotically one half of the integer compositions gap-free?

Question summary The number of gap-free compositions of $n$ can already for quite small $n$ be very well approximated by the total number of compositions of $n$ divided by $2$. This question seeks ...
35
votes
3answers
1k views

Very curious properties of ordered partitions relating to Fibonacci numbers

I came across some interesting propositions in some calculations I did and I was wondering if someone would be so kind as to provide some explanations of these phenomenon. We call an ordered ...
27
votes
7answers
20k views

Making Change for a Dollar (and other number partitioning problems)

I was trying to solve a problem similar to the "how many ways are there to make change for a dollar" problem. I ran across a site that said I could use a generating function similar to the one quoted ...
25
votes
1answer
840 views

Feeding real or even complex numbers to the integer partition function $p(n)$?

Like most people, when I first encountered $n!$ in grade school, I graphed it, then connected the dots with a smooth curve and reasoned that there must be some meaning to $\left(\frac43\right)!$ — and,...
24
votes
1answer
956 views

Ellipse 3-partition: same area and perimeter

Inspired by the question, "How to partition area of an ellipse into odd number of regions?," I ask for a partition an ellipse into three convex pieces, each of which has the same area and the same ...
23
votes
0answers
529 views

Visualizing the Partition numbers (suggestions for visualization techniques)

So Ken Ono says that the partition numbers behave like fractals, in which case I'd like to try to find an appropriately illuminating way of visualizing them. But I'm sort of stuck at the moment, so ...
18
votes
1answer
526 views

On the inequality $\frac{1+p(1)+p(2) + \dots + p(n-1)}{p(n)} \leq \sqrt {2n}.$

For all positive integers $n$, $p(n)$ is the number of partitions of $n$ as the sum of positive integers (the partition numbers); e.g. $p(4)=5$ since $4=1+1+1+1=1+1+2=1+3=2+2=4.$ Prove ...
17
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2answers
2k views

Closed-form Expression of the Partition Function $p(n)$

I feel like I have seen news that a paper was recently published, at most a few months ago, that solved the well-known problem of finding a closed-form expression for the partition function $p(n)$ ...
17
votes
1answer
614 views

Partition of ${1, 2, … , n}$ into subsets with equal sums.

The following is one of the old contest problems (22nd All Soviet Union Math Contest, 1988). Let $m, n, k$ be positive integers such that $m \ge n$ and $1 + 2 + ... + n = mk$. Prove that the numbers $...
15
votes
5answers
4k views

Prime Partition

A prime partition of a number is a set of primes that sum to the number. For instance, {2 3 7} is a prime partition of $12$ because $2 + 3 + 7 = 12$. In fact, there ...
15
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2answers
321 views

A question on partitions of n

Let $P$ be the set of partitions of $n$. Let $\lambda$ denote the shape of a particular partition. Let $f_\lambda(i)$ be the frequency of $i$ in $\lambda$ and let $a_\lambda(i) := \# \lbrace j : f_\...
14
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1answer
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The number of partitions of $n$ into distinct parts equals the number of partitions of $n$ into odd parts

This seems to be a common result. I've been trying to follow the bijective proof of it, which can be found easily online, but the explanations go over my head. It would be wonderful if you could give ...
14
votes
5answers
775 views

How solutions of distinct non-negative solutions are there to $k_1+\cdots+k_n=k$?

How many distinct $n$-tuples with distinct non-negative integer elements are there that add to $k$. For example there are $6$ triples that add to $4$. Namely $(0, 1, 3)$ and its $6$ permutations. Is ...
12
votes
2answers
183 views

Permutation induced by a partition

Let $\lambda$ be a partition of length $n$ and suppose its largest diagonal block, the Durfee square of $\lambda$, has size $r$. By this I mean that $\lambda = (\lambda_1,\ldots,\lambda_n)$ is a non-...
11
votes
8answers
5k views

How many ways can $133$ be written as sum of only $1s$ and $2s$

Since last week I have been working on a way, how to sum $1$ and $2$ to have $133$. So for instance we can have $133$ $1s$ or $61$ $s$2 and one and so on. Looking back to the example: if we sum: $1 + ...
11
votes
5answers
10k views

Algorithm for generating integer partitions

I'm looking for a fast algorithm for generating all the partitions of an integer up to a certain maximum length; ideally, I don't want to have to generate all of them and then discard the ones that ...
11
votes
2answers
847 views

Error in solution of Peter Winkler “red and blue dice” puzzle?

This question relates to the solution give in Peter Winkler's Mathematical Mind-Benders to the "Red and Blue Dice" problem appearing on page $23.$ You have two sets (one red, one blue) of $n\ n-$...
11
votes
1answer
2k views

Demystifying the asymptotic expression for the partition function

A partition of an integer $n$ is a way of writing $n$ as a sum of integers. The partition function $p(n)$ counts the number of distinct partitions of $n$. In 1918, Hardy and Ramanujan proved the ...
11
votes
2answers
255 views

Identity involving pentagonal numbers

Let $G_n = \tfrac{1}{2}n(3n-1)$ be the pentagonal number for all $n\in \mathbb{Z}$ and $p(n)$ be the partition function. I was trying to prove one of the Ramanujan's congruences: $$p(5n-1) = 0 \pmod 5,...
11
votes
1answer
3k views

For what coinage systems does a greedy algorithm not work in providing change?

For the United States coinage system, a greedy algorithm nicely allows for an algorithm that provides change in the least amount of coins. However, for a coinage system with 12 cent coins, a greedy ...
10
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2answers
4k views

Partitioning a natural number $n$ in order to get the maximum product sequence of its addends

Suppose we have a natural number $n \ge 0$. Given natural numbers $\alpha_1,\ldots,\alpha_k$ such that $k\le n$ $\sum_i \alpha_i = n$ what is the maximum value that $\Pi_i \alpha_i$ can take? I'm ...
10
votes
2answers
2k views

Identity involving partitions of even and odd parts.

First, denote by $p_E(n)$ be the number of partitions of $n$ with an even number of parts, and let $p_O(n)$ be those with an odd number of parts. Moreover, let $p_{DO}(x)$ be the number of partitions ...
10
votes
1answer
258 views

Bijection for $q$-binomial coefficient

Define the $q$-binomial (Gaussian) coefficient ${n+m\brack n}_q$ as the generating function for integer partitions (whose Ferrers diagrams are) fitting into a rectangle $n\times m$, i.e., for the set $...
10
votes
2answers
274 views

Number of ways to partition $40$ balls with $4$ colors into $4$ baskets

Suppose there are $40$ balls with $10$ red, $10$ blue, $10$ green, and $10$ yellow. All balls with the same color are deemed identical. Now all balls are supposed to be put into $4$ identical baskets, ...
9
votes
3answers
1k views

Number of partitions of $50$

Does someone know the number of partitions of the integer $50$? I mean, in how many ways can I write $50$ as a sum of positive integers? I know that there's a table by Euler, which is useful to know ...
9
votes
2answers
236 views

P-graph of partition elements of 100 under common divisibility relation

Given a multiset of positive integers, its P-graph is the loopless graph whose vertex set consists of those integers, any two of which are joined by an edge if they have a common divisor greater than ...
9
votes
1answer
1k views

Recurrence for the partition numbers

I'm reading Analytic Combinatorics [PDF] book by Flajolet and Sedgewick, and I can't figure out one of the steps in the derivation of the $P_n$ — number of partitions of size $n$ (or coefficients in ...
9
votes
2answers
211 views

Combinatorial puzzle reminiscent of knapsack problem. Is this classic?

I have $n$ red integers $a_1,\ldots,a_n$ (not necessarily distinct), all with $1\leq a_i\leq n$. I also have $n$ blue integers $b_1,\ldots,b_n$ with same constraints. I want to show that there is a (...
9
votes
1answer
270 views

Seeking a textbook proof of a formula for the number of set partitions whose parts induce a given integer partition

Let $t \geq 1$ and $\pi$ be an integer partition of $t$. Then the number of set partitions $Q$ of $\{1,2,\ldots,t\}$ for which the multiset $\{|q|:q \in Q\}=\pi$ is given by \[\frac{t!}{\prod_{i \geq ...
9
votes
3answers
544 views

Integer Partition Refinement in Sage

A partition of an integer $n$ is a non-decreasing list of positive integers summing to $n$. For example, $3$ can be partitioned as $1 + 1 + 1$, $1 + 2$ or just $3$, but $2 + 1$ is indistinct from $1 + ...
9
votes
2answers
4k views

Counting integer partitions of n into exactly k distinct parts size at most M

How can I find the number of partitions of $n$ into exactly $k$ distinct parts, where each part is at most $M$? The number of partitions $p_k(\leq M,n)$ of $n$ into at most $k$ parts, each of size at ...
9
votes
1answer
179 views

Recovering a partition of 50

The sum of 10 numbers, not necessarily distinct, is 50. When placed appropriately in the circles of this diagram, any two numbers will be joined by a line if, and only if, they have a common divisor ...
9
votes
0answers
133 views

Closed form for $\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{P(n)}$, where $P(n)$ is the partition function.

Is there a closed form for the following infinite series? $$\sum_{n=1}^\infty \frac{1}{P(n)}=1+\frac{1}{2}+\frac{1}{3}+\frac{1}{5}+...$$ where $P(n)$ is the partition function.
8
votes
5answers
13k views

Count the number of integer solutions to $x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=36$

How to count the number of integer solutions to $x_1+x_2+\cdots+x_5=36$ such that $x_1\ge 4,x_3 = 11,x_4\ge 7$ And how about $x_1\ge 4, x_3=11,x_4\ge 7,x_5\le 5$ In both cases, $x_1,x_2,x_3,x_4,...
8
votes
1answer
4k views

On problems of coins totaling to a given amount

I don't know the proper terms to type into Google, so please pardon me for asking here first. While jingling around a few coins, I realized that one nice puzzle might be to figure out which $n$ or so ...
8
votes
3answers
1k views

Putnam Problem: Partitioning integers with generating functions

We were given the following A-1 problem from the 2003 Putnam Competition: Let $n$ be a fixed positive integer. How many ways are there to write $n$ as a sum of positive integers, $$ n= a_1+a_2+ \...
8
votes
1answer
341 views

Formula for evaluation of character on a transposition

Let $\lambda\vdash n$ be a partition of $n\in\mathbb N$ and $\chi=\chi_\lambda$ the corresponding irreducible character of the symmetric group $S_n$. Denote by $\lambda^t$ be the transpose of $\lambda$...
8
votes
1answer
320 views

Maximal Zero Sums Partition

You are given $n$ numbers between $-n$ and $n$, the sum of numbers is $0$. Divide the given sequence on disjoint subsequences in such a way that each subsequence has zero sum. Each element should ...
8
votes
1answer
355 views

Characters of the symmetric group corresponding to partitions into two parts

Let $n\in\mathbb N$ be a natural number and $\lambda=(a,b)\vdash n$ a partition of $n$ into two parts, i.e. $a\ge b$ and $a+b=n$. In this special case, is there a simple description of the character $\...
8
votes
2answers
220 views

Minimizing over partitions $f(\lambda) = \sum \limits_{i = 1}^N |\lambda_i|^4/(\sum \limits_{i = 1}^N |\lambda_i|^2)^2$

I'm trying to characterize the behavior of the the quantity: $$A = \frac{\sum \limits_{i = 1}^N x_i^4}{(\sum \limits_{i = 1}^N x_i^2)^2},$$ subject to the constraints that $$ \sum \limits_{i = 1}^N ...
8
votes
0answers
567 views

Partitions of 13 and 14 into either four or five smaller integers

There are exactly 18 partitions of the integer 13 into 4 parts, as on the left of the table, and also 18 partitions into 5 parts, as on the right of the table: $$\begin{array}{c|c} 10+1+1+1 & 9+1+...
8
votes
0answers
506 views

Young Tableaux as Matrices

These questions are motivated only by curiosity. Take a Young tableau of shape $(\lambda_1,\lambda_2,\ldots,\lambda_n)$, where $\lambda_1 \geq \lambda_2 \geq \ldots \geq \lambda_n$. Is there any ...
7
votes
6answers
631 views

$a+b+c+d+e=79$ with constraints

How many non-negative integer solutions are there to $a+b+c+d+e=79$ with the constraints $a\ge7$, $b\le34$ and $3\le c\le41$? I get that for $a\ge7$ you do $79-7=72$, $\binom{72+5-1}{5-1}=\binom{76}4$...
7
votes
1answer
480 views

Partition Generating Function

a) Let $$P(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} p_nx^n=1+x+2x^2+3x^3+5x^4+7x^5+11x^6+\cdots$$ be the partition generating function, and let $Q(x)=\sum_{n=0}^{\infty} q_nx^n$, where $q_n$ is the number of ...
7
votes
3answers
585 views

How to prove it? (one of the Rogers-Ramanujan identities)

Prove the following identity (one of the Rogers-Ramanujan identities) on formal power series by interpreting each side as a generating function for partitions: $$1+\sum_{k\geq1}\frac{z^k}{(1-z)(1-z^2)...
7
votes
1answer
2k views

Bijective Proof: Number of Partitions of 2n into n parts

The number of partitions of n is equal to the # of the partitions of 2n divided into n parts. I know that the number of partitions of any integer n into i parts equals the number of partitions of n ...
7
votes
1answer
3k views

Hardy Ramanujan Asymptotic Formula for the Partition Number

I am needing to use the asymptotic formula for the partition number, $p(n)$ (see here for details about partitions). The asymptotic formula always seems to be written as, $ p(n) \sim \frac{1}{4n\...
7
votes
3answers
2k views

Combinatorics: Generating Function related to compositions of a number

My goal is to find the coefficients of the generating function for the following situation: The number $f(n)$ is the sum over all compositions of $n$ into $3$ parts of the product of those parts. Fo ...
7
votes
1answer
656 views

Elementary proof of Ramanujan's “most beautiful identity”

Ramanujan presented many identities, Hardy chose one which for him represented the best of Ramanujan. There are many proofs for this identity. (for example, H. H. Chan’s proof, M. Hirschhorn's proof....
7
votes
1answer
160 views

Asymptotic behavior of unique integer partitions

Okay, this is one of those questions that I'm sure has a very simple answer I'm missing, and I'd appreciate any push in the right direction. Consider a very large integer $N$. Stealing an example ...