# Questions tagged [geometry]

For questions about geometric shapes, congruences, similarities, transformations, as well as the properties of classes of figures, points, lines, and angles.

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### The staircase paradox, or why $\pi\ne4$

What is wrong with this proof? Is $\pi=4?$
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### Is this Batman equation for real? [closed]

HardOCP has an image with an equation which apparently draws the Batman logo. Is this for real? Batman Equation in text form: \begin{align} &\left(\left(\frac x7\right)^2\sqrt{\frac{||x|-3|}{|x|-...
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### V.I. Arnold says Russian students can't solve this problem, but American students can -- why?

In a book of word problems by V.I Arnold, the following appears: The hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle (in a standard American examination) is 10 inches, the altitude dropped onto it is 6 ...
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### What is the maximum volume that can be contained by a sheet of paper?

I was writing some exercises about the AM-GM inequality and I got carried away by the following (pretty nontrivial, I believe) question: Q: By properly folding a common $210mm\times 297mm$ sheet of ...
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### Does the square or the circle have the greater perimeter? A surprisingly hard problem for high schoolers

An exam for high school students had the following problem: Let the point $E$ be the midpoint of the line segment $AD$ on the square $ABCD$. Then let a circle be determined by the points $E$, $B$ and ...
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### How can a piece of A4 paper be folded in exactly three equal parts?

This is something that always annoys me when putting an A4 letter in a oblong envelope: one has to estimate where to put the creases when folding the letter. I normally start from the bottom and on ...
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### How many sides does a circle have?

My son is in 2nd grade. His math teacher gave the class a quiz, and one question was this: If a triangle has 3 sides, and a rectangle has 4 sides, how many sides does a circle have? My first ...
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### Software for drawing geometry diagrams

What software do you use to accurately draw geometry diagrams?
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### Why is the Penrose triangle "impossible"?

I remember seeing this shape as a kid in school and at that time it was pretty obvious to me that it was "impossible". Now I looked at it again and I can't see why it is impossible anymore.. ...
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### How to distinguish between walking on a sphere and walking on a torus?

Imagine that you're a flatlander walking in your world. How could you be able to distinguish between your world being a sphere versus a torus? I can't see the difference from this point of view. If ...
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### What's new in higher dimensions?

This is a very speculative/soft question; please keep this in mind when reading it. Here "higher" means "greater than 3". What I am wondering about is what new geometrical phenomena are there in ...
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### Slice of pizza with no crust

The following question came up at a conference and a solution took a while to find. Puzzle. Find a way of cutting a pizza into finitely many congruent pieces such that at least one piece of pizza has ...
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### Can someone explain the math behind tessellation?

Tessellation is fascinating to me, and I've always been amazed by the drawings of M.C.Escher, particularly interesting to me, is how he would've gone about calculating tessellating shapes. In my ...
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### Studying Euclidean geometry using hyperbolic criteria

You've spent your whole life in the hyperbolic plane. It's second nature to you that the area of a triangle depends only on its angles, and it seems absurd to suggest that it could ever be otherwise. ...
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### Is the blue area greater than the red area?

Problem: A vertex of one square is pegged to the centre of an identical square, and the overlapping area is blue. One of the squares is then rotated about the vertex and the resulting overlap is red. ...
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### What is the probability that a point chosen randomly from inside an equilateral triangle is closer to the center than to any of the edges?

My friend gave me this puzzle: What is the probability that a point chosen at random from the interior of an equilateral triangle is closer to the center than any of its edges? I tried to draw ...
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### How can I find the surface area of a normal chicken egg?

This morning, I had eggs for breakfast, and I was looking at the pieces of broken shells and thought "What is the surface area of this egg?" The problem is that I have no real idea about how to find ...
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### Probability that a stick randomly broken in five places can form a tetrahedron

Edit (June. 2015) This question has been moved to MathOverflow, where a recent write-up finds a similar approximation as leonbloy's post below; see here. Randomly break a stick in five places. ...
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### Why is the derivative of a circle's area its perimeter (and similarly for spheres)?

When differentiated with respect to $r$, the derivative of $\pi r^2$ is $2 \pi r$, which is the circumference of a circle. Similarly, when the formula for a sphere's volume $\frac{4}{3} \pi r^3$ is ...
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### Fastest way to meet, without communication, on a sphere?

I was puzzled by a question my colleague asked me, and now seeking your help. Suppose you and your friend* end up on a big sphere. There are no visual cues on where on the sphere you both are, and ...
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### What is the smallest number of $45^\circ-60^\circ-75^\circ$ triangles that a square can be divided into?

What is the smallest number of $45^\circ-60^\circ-75^\circ$ triangles that a square can be divided into? The image below is a flawed example, from http://www.mathpuzzle.com/flawed456075.gif ...
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### Why is the volume of a sphere $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$?

I learned that the volume of a sphere is $\frac{4}{3}\pi r^3$, but why? The $\pi$ kind of makes sense because its round like a circle, and the $r^3$ because it's 3-D, but $\frac{4}{3}$ is so random! ...
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### What does the dot product of two vectors represent?

I know how to calculate the dot product of two vectors alright. However, it is not clear to me what, exactly, does the dot product represent. The product of two numbers, $2$ and $3$, we say that it ...
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### Why is the volume of a cone one third of the volume of a cylinder?

The volume of a cone with height $h$ and radius $r$ is $\frac{1}{3} \pi r^2 h$, which is exactly one third the volume of the smallest cylinder that it fits inside. This can be proved easily by ...
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### Prove the theorem on analytic geometry in the picture.

I discovered this elegant theorem in my facebook feed. Does anyone have any idea how to prove? Formulations of this theorem can be found in the answers and the comments. You are welcome to join in the ...
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### Mathematicians' Tensors vs. Physicists' Tensors

It seems, at times, that physicists and mathematicians mean different things when they say the word "tensor." From my perspective, when I say tensor, I mean "an element of a tensor product of vector ...
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### What is the most elegant proof of the Pythagorean theorem? [closed]

The Pythagorean Theorem is one of the most popular to prove by mathematicians, and there are many proofs available (including one from James Garfield). What's the most elegant proof? My favorite ...
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### Can you make a sphere out of a plane?

I had this idea to build a model of Earth in Minecraft. In this game, everything is built on a 2D plane of infinite length and width. But, I wanted to make a world such that someone exploring it could ...
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### Modelling the "Moving Sofa"

I believe that many of you know about the moving sofa problem; if not you can find the description of the problem here. In this question I am going to rotate the L shaped hall instead of moving a ...
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### A goat tied to a corner of a rectangle

A goat is tied to an external corner of a rectangular shed measuring 4 m by 6 m. If the goat’s rope is 8 m long, what is the total area, in square meters, in which the goat can graze? Well, it seems ...
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### Is there a size of rectangle that retains its ratio when it's folded in half?

A hypothetical (and maybe practical) question has been nagging at me. If you had a piece of paper with dimensions 4 and 3 (4:3), folding it in half along the long side (once) would result in 2 inches ...
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### Can manholes be made in other shapes than circles, that prevent the cover from being able to fall down its own hole?

Circular manholes are great because the cover can not fall down the hole. If the hole were square, the heavy metal cover could fall down the hole and kill some man working down there. Circular manhole:...
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### Can a row of five equilateral triangles tile a big equilateral triangle?

Can rotations and translations of this shape perfectly tile some equilateral triangle? I've now also asked this question on mathoverflow. Notes: Obviously I'm ignoring the triangle of side $0$. ...
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### Calculating the volume of a restaurant take-away box that is circular on the bottom and square on the top

Having a bit of a problem calculating the volume of a take-away box: I originally wanted to use integration to measure it by rotating around the x-axiz, but realised that when folded the top becomes ...
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### Why is a circle in a plane surrounded by 6 other circles?

When you draw a circle in a plane you can perfectly surround it with 6 other circles of the same radius. This works for any radius. What's the significance of 6? Why not some other numbers? I'm ...
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### Why is a full turn of the circle 360°? Why not any other number?

I was just wondering why we have 90° degrees for a perpendicular angle. Why not 100° or any other number? What is the significance of 90° for the perpendicular or 360° for a circle? I didn't ever ...
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### Why is the Möbius strip not orientable?

I am trying to understand the notion of an orientable manifold. Let M be a smooth n-manifold. We say that M is orientable if and only if there exists an atlas $A = \{(U_{\alpha}, \phi_{\alpha})\}$ ...
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### 20 circles in the plane, all passing through the origin

Suppose I draw $20$ circles in the plane, all passing through the origin, but no two tangent at the origin. Also, except for the origin, no three circles pass through a common point. How many regions ...
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### What's a proof that the angles of a triangle add up to 180°?

Back in grade school, I had a solution involving "folding the triangle" into a rectangle half the area, and seeing that all the angles met at a point: However, now that I'm in university, I'm not ...
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### What is the meaning of the third derivative of a function at a point

(Originally asked on MO by AJAY.) What is the geometric, physical, or other meaning of the third derivative of a function at a point? If you have interesting things to say about the meaning of the ...
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### What is the equation for a 3D line?

Just like we have the equation $y=mx+b$ for $\mathbb{R}^{2}$, what would be a equation for $\mathbb{R}^{3}$? Thanks.
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### Gerrymandering on a high-genus surface/can I use my powers for evil?

Somewhat in contrast to this question. Let's say the Supreme Court has just issued a ruling that the upper and lower roads of an overpass need not be in the same congressional district. This makes ...
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What is the simplest way to find out the area of a triangle if the coordinates of the three vertices are given in $x$-$y$ plane? One approach is to find the length of each side from the coordinates ...