Questions tagged [functional-equations]

The term "functional equation" is used for problems where the goal is to find all functions satisfying the given equation and possibly other conditions. Solving the equation means finding all functions satisfying the equation. For basic questions about functions use more suitable tags like (functions) or (elementary-set-theory).

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11
votes
1answer
309 views

Functional equation $4f(x^2+y^2)=(f(x)+f(y))^2$

Consider the following problem: Determine all functions $f:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ that satisfy the functional equation $$4f(x^2+y^2)=(f(x)+f(y))^2.$$ So first of all plugging in $x=0=y$,...
11
votes
2answers
408 views

Is there a less-trivial integer function with described properties?

To be found are integer one-valued functions $f(n_1,n_2)$ with following properties: $f(n_1,n_2)=f(n_2,n_1)$, $f(f(n_1,n_2),n_3)=f(n_1,f(n_2,n_3))$, $f(n_1+n_2,n_1+n_3)=n_1+f(n_2,n_3)$. So far I ...
11
votes
3answers
171 views

If $B(x+y)-B(x)-B(y)\in\mathbb Z$ can we add an integer function to $B$ to make it additive?

Given a function $B:\mathbb R\to\mathbb R$ satisfying $B(x+y)-B(x)-B(y)\in\mathbb Z$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$, is there a function $Z:\mathbb R\to\mathbb Z$ such that $B+Z$ is an additive ...
11
votes
0answers
132 views

How to solve non-linear differential equation [duplicate]

How to solve non-linear differential equation $$y'(x) = y(y(x)), \quad y\colon\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}?$$ Of course, $y(x)\not\equiv 0$. If we substitute $y(x) = Ax^n$, we get complex $n$ and $A$. Any ...
11
votes
3answers
550 views

Solving the functional equation $f(x) = f(x / \phi) f(x / \phi^2 - 1)$

I'm trying to find a function $f(x)$ such that the spacing between consecutive roots looks like the infinite Fibonacci word: $$1, \phi^{-1}, 1, 1, \phi^{-1}, 1, \phi^{-1}, 1, 1, \phi^{-1}, 1, 1, \phi^...
10
votes
3answers
877 views

If $f$ is continuous and $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$, then $\lim\limits_{x \rightarrow 0} \frac{f(x)-f(0)}{x}$ exists

I'm solving the functional equation $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ and I know that I have a continuous function $f:[0,\infty\rangle \to \langle 0,\infty\rangle$ s.t. $f(0)=1$. In one of the steps, I want to show ...
10
votes
2answers
315 views

Factoring x + y

I'm trying to find functions $f(x)$ and $g(y)$ such that $$f(x)\cdot g(y) = x + y$$ I can't seem to find a single solution to this problem. Anything I try becomes of the form $f(x,y) \cdot g(y) or f(...
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Functional Equation $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+f(x)f(y)$

I need to find all the continuous functions from $\mathbb R\rightarrow \mathbb R$ such that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)+f(x)f(y)$. I know, what I assume to be, the general way to attempt these problems, but I ...
10
votes
2answers
536 views

How to prove that $f(f(x))=-x$ implies that $f$ is not continuous? [duplicate]

I am trying to prove that: Given an $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, if $f(f(x))=-x$ then $f$ is not continuous? any help? Thank you!
10
votes
2answers
4k views

Graph of discontinuous linear function is dense

$f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ is a function such that for all $x,y$ in $\mathbb{R}$, $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. If $f$ is cont, then of course it has to be linear. But here $f$ is NOT continous. Then ...
10
votes
2answers
1k views

Are all multiplicative functions additive?

Suppose $cf(x)=f(cx)$ and $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$. I believe it follows that $f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y)$. Proof: There is some $c$ such that $y=cx$. Then $$f(x+y)=f\left((1+c)x\right)=(1+c)f(x)=f(x)+cf(...
10
votes
3answers
610 views

a continuous function satisfying $f(f(f(x)))=-x$ other than $f(x)=-x$

My question is about existence of a non-trivial solution of the functional equation $f(f(f(x)))=-x$ where $f$ is a continuous function defined on $\mathbb{R}$. Also, what about the general one $f^n(x)=...
10
votes
2answers
16k views

How do I prove that $f(x)f(y)=f(x+y)$ implies that $f(x)=e^{cx}$, assuming f is continuous and not zero?

This is part of a homework assignment for a real analysis course taught out of "Baby Rudin." Just looking for a push in the right direction, not a full-blown solution. We are to suppose that $f(x)f(...
10
votes
3answers
417 views

Functional Equation (no. of solutions): $f(x+y) + f(x-y) = 2f(x) + 2f(y)$

Find all the functions $f\colon\mathbb{Q} \to \mathbb{Q}$ such that $f(x+y) + f(x-y) = 2f(x) + 2f(y)$, for all rationals $x,y$.
10
votes
3answers
422 views

$f(x^2) = 2f(x)$ and $f(x)$ continuous

I ran into a problem recently where I obtained the following constraint on a function. $$f(x^2) = 2f(x) \,\,\,\, \forall x \geq 0$$ and the function $f(x)$ is continuous. Can we conclude that $f(x)$ ...
10
votes
4answers
259 views

If $f(x)^2=x+(x+1)f(x+2)$, what is $f(1)$?

Suppose $f$: $\mathbb{R}_{\geq 0} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ and $f(x)^2 = x + (x+1)f(x+2)$, what is $f(1)$? Or more in general, what is $f(x)$? The motivation behind this problem is that I want to find ...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

Solving $(f(x))^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$

I would like to know how to solve this equation : $$f(x)^2 = f(\sqrt{2}x)$$ We assume that $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ is $\mathcal C^{2}$. The answer should be $f(x)=e^{-x^{2}/2}$, but I don't ...
10
votes
4answers
232 views

A function satisfying $f(\frac1{x+1})\cdot x=f(x)-1$ and $f(1)=1$?

$f:[0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}$ is a continuous function which satisfies $f(1)=1$ and: $$f(\frac1{x+1})\cdot x=f(x)-1$$ Does there exist such a function, if they do, are there infinitely many? And is ...
10
votes
5answers
393 views

Functional equation: $R(1/x)/x^2 = R(x) $

The following can be shown without much hassle. Suppose $R$ is a rational function satisfying the following functional equation. \begin{align} \frac{1}{x^2} R\left( \frac{1}{x} \right) = R(x)...
10
votes
3answers
876 views

Help remembering a Putnam Problem

I recall that there was a Putnam problem which went something like this: Find all real functions satisfying $$f(s^2+f(t)) = t+f(s)^2$$ for all $s,t \in \mathbb{R}$. There was a cool trick to ...
10
votes
2answers
198 views

Prove that $f(x)=8$ for all natural numbers $x\ge{8}$

A function $f$ is such that $$f(a+b)=f(ab)$$ for all natural numbers $a,b\ge{4}$ and $f(8)=8$. Prove that $f(x)=8$ for all natural numbers $x\ge{8}$
10
votes
2answers
966 views

References about Sierpinski's Theorem regarding Darboux functions

I am writing something about the following two theorems: Every function $f: \Bbb{R} \to \Bbb{R}$ can be written $f=f_1+f_2$ where $f_1,f_2:\Bbb{R} \to \Bbb{R}$ both have the Darboux property. ...
10
votes
2answers
589 views

Functional equation of irreducible characters

I am preparing to an exam in representations of finite groups. I am trying to tackle a problem regarding a characterization of irreducible characters: Let $f$ be a complex-valued function on a finite ...
10
votes
4answers
196 views

Functional equation involving $f(x^4)+f(x^2)+f(x)$

Find all increasing functions $f$ from positive reals to positive reals satisfying $f(x^4) + f(x^2) + f(x) = x^4 + x^2 + x$. It's easy to show that $f(1)=1$, and I was also able to show that $$f(x)-x ...
10
votes
3answers
405 views

Prove that there is no function $f:\Bbb{R}\to\Bbb{R}$ with $f(0)>0$ such that $\forall x,y\in\Bbb{R}, f(x+y)\geq f(x)+y f(f(x))$

I got this problem: Prove that there is no function $f:\Bbb{R}\to\Bbb{R}$ with $f(0)>0$ such that $\forall x,y\in\Bbb{R}, f(x+y)\geq f(x)+y f(f(x))$. (Hint: the solution involves limits at ...
10
votes
4answers
1k views

How find this function $f(1+xy)=f(x)f(y)+f(x+y)$

let $f:\mathbb R\longrightarrow \mathbb R$,and for any real numbers $x,y$ have $$f(1+xy)-f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$$ and $f(-1)\neq 0$. Find the $f(x)$ My try:let $x=y=0$,then we have $$f(1)-f(0)=[f(0)]^2$$ ...
10
votes
1answer
1k views

Functions that satisfy $f(x+y)=f(x)f(y)$ and $f(1)=e$

My real analysis professor mentioned in passing that there exist functions $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ that satisfy all of the following conditions for all $a,b \in \mathbb{R}$: $$f(1)=e$$ $$...
10
votes
4answers
196 views

Find all polynomials with real coefficients that satisfy $(x^2-6x+8)P(x)=(x^2+2x)P(x-2)$

Find all polynomials with real coefficients that satisfy $$(x^2-6x+8)P(x)=(x^2+2x)P(x-2)\forall x\in\Bbb R$$ My work; $$\frac{P(x)}{P(x-2)}=-\frac{4}{x-2}+\frac{12}{x-4}+1\tag{1}$$ $$\frac{P(x-2)}{...
10
votes
2answers
304 views

Solving the functional equation $f(xy)=f(f(x)+f(y))$

Find all functions from $f: \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ such that for all $x$ and $y$ $$f (xy)=f (f (x)+f (y))$$ I've put $x$ and $y$ as $0$ and $1$. How to proceed after substituting if we don't ...
10
votes
1answer
453 views

The value of the trilogarithm at $\frac{1}{2}$

From the functional equation $$\text{Li}_{3}(z) + \text{Li}_{3}(1-z)+ \text{Li}_{3} \Big( 1 - \frac{1}{z} \Big) = \zeta(3) + \frac{\ln^{3} (z)}{6}+ \frac{\pi^{2} \ln (z) }{6}- \frac{\ln^{2} (z) \ln(...
10
votes
3answers
2k views

If $ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x $, then $f(x)=x$

Let $ f : \mathbb{Q} \rightarrow \mathbb{Q} $ be a function which has the following property: $$ f(x \cdot f(y) + f(x)) = y \cdot f(x) + x \;,\; \forall \; x, y \in \mathbb{Q} $$ Prove that $ f(x) = ...
10
votes
2answers
637 views

Functions satisfying $f\left( f(x)^2+f(y) \right)=xf(x)+y$

Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ such that $f\left( f(x)^2+f(y) \right)=xf(x)+y$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$. Clearly $f(x)=x$ is a solution, check by substitution. I'm ...
10
votes
1answer
115 views

if $f(x + y) = f(x)f(y)$ is continuous, then it has to be injective.

Let $f$: $\Bbb R$ $\rightarrow$ $\Bbb R$ be a non-constant function such that $f(a + b) = f(a)f(b)$ for all real numbers $a$ and $b$. Prove that if $f(x + y) = f(x)f(y)$ is continuous, then it has ...
10
votes
1answer
5k views

Solution(s) to $f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y)$ (and miscellaneous questions…)

My lecturer was talking today (in the context of probability, more specifically Kolmogorov's axioms) about the additive property of functions, namely that: $$f(x+y) = f(x) + f(y)$$ I've been trying ...
10
votes
3answers
113 views

Proving that this function has the same value for all integers $\geq4$. [duplicate]

My teacher gave us this question: A function $f$ has the property $$f(x+y) = f(xy) $$ $$\forall x, y\geq4; x,y\epsilon Z$$ $$f(8)=9$$ Find $f(9)$. I know the solution to this question. $9=f(8) = f(4+...
10
votes
3answers
221 views

How to solve the functional equation $ f(f(x))=ax^2+bx+c $

Find all real numbers $a,b,c\in\mathbb{R}$ for which there exists a function $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that: $$ f(f(x))=ax^2+bx+c $$ for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$. The only thing I could deduce is: ...
10
votes
1answer
646 views

A unsolved puzzle from Number Theory/ Functional inequalities

The function $g:[0,1]\to[0,1]$ is continuously differentiable and increasing. Also, $g(0)=0$ and $g(1)=1$. Continuity and differentiability of higher orders can be assumed if necessary. The ...
10
votes
1answer
137 views

Vector Space Structures over ($\mathbb{R}$,+)

Consider the abelian group ($\mathbb{R}$,+) of real numbers with the usual addition. Is there a scalar multiplication \begin{equation} \cdot : \mathbb{R} \times \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}, \end{...
10
votes
1answer
2k views

find functions f such that $f(f(x))=xf(x)+1$,

let $f:R\longrightarrow R$, and $f$ is continous,and such that $f(f(x))=xf(x)+1$, find all this $f$? follow is my some idea:(but I don't have solution) We have $f(f(0)) = 1$, so there is your $c = ...
10
votes
1answer
349 views

Which positive continuous functions satisfy $F(x) = F(e^x)-F(e^{-x})$ for $x\geq 0$?

There is at least one such function. It is the cdf of the equilibrium probability distribution for the chaotic sequence $x(n+1) = |\log x(n)|$ with $x(1) = 2$. Its graph (approximation) is pictured ...
10
votes
1answer
273 views

Find all functions on the non-zero reals to itself satisfying $f(xy)=f(x+y)(f(x)+f(y))$

Find all functions $f\colon\mathbb{R}\setminus\{0\}\to\mathbb{R}\setminus\{0\}$ such that $f(xy)=f(x+y)(f(x)+f(y))$. I'm reasonably confident that the solutions are $f(x)=\frac{1}{x}$ and $f(x)=\frac{...
10
votes
1answer
368 views

Additive functional inequality

The function $f:R_+\to R_+$ is continuously differentiable and increasing. Also, $f(0)=0$ and $f(\infty)=\infty$. Continuity and differentiability of higher orders can be assumed if necessary. ...
10
votes
1answer
227 views

Solution(s) to $f(x+f(y))+f(y+f(x))=2f(f(x))f(f(y))$

I would like to know the solutions of the functional equation: $$f(x+f(y))+f(y+f(x))=2f(f(x))f(f(y)), \forall x,y\in\mathbb{R}$$ where $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$. I have already determined ...
10
votes
0answers
233 views

Non-trivial solutions of a functional equation $(f \circ f \circ f)(x)=x$

I have come to this from the topic of self-inverse functions. Let's consider a more complicated case where: $$(f \circ f \circ f)(x)=x \tag{1}$$ Also assume that $f(x)$ is continous on some non-...
10
votes
2answers
217 views

Find all the functions $f: \mathbb{N} \to \mathbb{N} $ such that $(m+f(n))(n+f(m))$ is a perfect square for all $m,n$

Let $N$ be the set of natural number. Find all functions $f: \mathbb N \to \mathbb N$ , such that the number $(m+f(n))(n+f(m))$ is perfect square for all natural numbers $m$ and $n$. I was unable to ...
9
votes
7answers
10k views

$f(x)f(1/x)=f(x)+f(1/x)$

Find a function $f(x)$ such that: $$f(x)f(1/x)=f(x)+f(1/x)$$ with $f(4)=65$. I have tried to let $f(x)$ be a general polynomial: $$a_0+a_1x+a_2x^2+\ldots a_nx^n$$ which leaves $f(1/x)$ as: $$a_0+...
9
votes
3answers
237 views

If $f(x)$ satisfies $2f (x) = f(xy) + f(x/y)$, find $f(x)$

If $f(x)$ is a continuous and differentiable function which satisfies the function equation If $$2f (x) = f(xy) + f\left(\frac xy\right)\quad \forall x,y \in \mathbb{R}^{+}$$ and $f'(1)=1$ then find $...
9
votes
3answers
525 views

real values of $x$ which satisfy the equation $\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+x}}}=x$

All real values of $x$ which satisfy the equation $\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+x}}}=x$ $\bf{My\; Try::}$ Here $\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+\sqrt{1+x}}} = x>0$ Now Let $f(x)=\sqrt{1+x}\;,$ Then equation convert ...
9
votes
4answers
841 views

Is $f(x) = Cx\log x$ the only solution to $f(xy) = xf(y) + yf(x)$?

I was studying $L(x) = x \log x$ function and found that it satisfies the following functional equation for positive $x, y$: $$ f: \mathbb R^+ \to \mathbb R\\ f(xy) = x f(y) + y f(x) $$ I have a ...
9
votes
4answers
585 views

What functions satisfy this functional equation?

$$f(x)-g(x)=f(g(x))$$ How could I find an f(x) and g(x) that satisfy this?