# Questions tagged [functional-analysis]

Functional analysis, the study of infinite-dimensional vector spaces, often with additional structures (inner product, norm, topology), with typical examples given by function spaces. The subject also includes the study of linear and non-linear operators on these spaces and other topics. For basic questions about functions use more suitable tags like (functions), (functional-equations) or (elementary-set-theory).

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### Norms Induced by Inner Products and the Parallelogram Law

Let $V$ be a normed vector space (over $\mathbb{R}$, say, for simplicity) with norm $\lVert\cdot\rVert$. It's not hard to show that if $\lVert \cdot \rVert = \sqrt{\langle \cdot, \cdot \rangle}$ ...
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### Your favourite application of the Baire Category Theorem

I think I remember reading somewhere that the Baire Category Theorem is supposedly quite powerful. Whether that is true or not, it's my favourite theorem (so far) and I'd love to see some applications ...
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### Does the open mapping theorem imply the Baire category theorem?

A nice observation by C.E. Blair1, 2, 3 shows that the Baire category theorem for complete metric spaces is equivalent to the axiom of (countable) dependent choice. On the other hand, the three ...
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### $L^p$ and $L^q$ space inclusion

Let $(X, \mathcal B, m)$ be a measure space. For $1 \leq p < q \leq \infty$, under what condition is it true that $L^q(X, \mathcal B, m) \subset L^p(X, \mathcal B, m)$ and what is a counterexample ...
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### Why don't analysts do category theory?

I'm a mathematics student in abstract algebra and algebraic geometry. Most of my books cover a great deal of category theory and it is an essential tool in understanding these two subjects. Recently, ...
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### What is the difference between a Hamel basis and a Schauder basis?

Let $V$ be a vector space with infinite dimensions. A Hamel basis for $V$ is an ordered set of linearly independent vectors $\{ v_i \ | \ i \in I\}$ such that any $v \in V$ can be expressed as a ...
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### Is the derivative the natural logarithm of the left-shift?

(Disclaimer: I'm a high school student, and my knowledge of mathematics extends only to some elementary high school calculus. I don't know if what I'm about to do is valid mathematics.) I noticed ...
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### Good book for self study of functional analysis

I am a EE grad. student who has had one undergraduate course in real analysis (which was pretty much the only pure math course that I have ever done). I would like to do a self study of some basic ...
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### Understanding of the theorem that all norms are equivalent in finite dimensional vector spaces

The following is a well-known result in functional analysis: If the vector space $X$ is finite dimensional, all norms are equivalent. Here is the standard proof in one textbook. First, pick a ...
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### Lebesgue measure theory vs differential forms?

I am currently reading various differential geometry books. From what I understand differential forms allow us to generalize calculus to manifolds and thus perform integration on manifolds. I gather ...
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### If $f_k \to f$ a.e. and the $L^p$ norms converge, then $f_k \to f$ in $L^p$

Let $1\leq p < \infty$. Suppose that $\{f_k, f\} \subset L^p$ (the domain here does not necessarily have to be finite), $f_k \to f$ almost everywhere, and $\|f_k\|_{L^p} \to \|f\|_{L^p}$. Why is ...
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### Relations between p norms

The $p$-norm on $\mathbb R^n$ is given by $\|x\|_{p}=\big(\sum_{k=1}^n |x_{k}|^p\big)^{1/p}$. For $0 < p < q$ it can be shown that $\|x\|_p\geq\|x\|_q$ (1, 2). It appears that in $\mathbb{R}^n$ ...
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### What functions or classes of functions are $L^1$ but not $L^2$?

We know that if a real function is in $L^2$ then it is in $L^1$, but the reverse is not necessarily true. So what are the examples of functions that are $L^1$ but not $L^2$, especially those ...
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