Questions tagged [exponential-function]

For question involving exponential functions and questions on exponential growth or decay.

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64
votes
14answers
55k views

How to prove that exponential grows faster than polynomial?

In other words, how to prove: For all real constants $a$ and $b$ such that $a > 1$, $$\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\frac{n^b}{a^n} = 0$$ I know the definition of limit but I feel that it's not ...
33
votes
10answers
15k views

About $\lim \left(1+\frac {x}{n}\right)^n$

I was wondering if it is possible to get a link to a rigorous proof that $$\displaystyle \lim_{n\to\infty} \left(1+\frac {x}{n}\right)^n=\exp x$$
81
votes
11answers
10k views

Comparing $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ without calculating them

How can I calculate, without calculator or similar device, the values of $\pi^e$ and $e^\pi$ in order to compare them?
107
votes
9answers
16k views

Proof that $C\exp(x)$ is the only set of functions for which $f(x) = f'(x)$

I was wondering the following. And I probably know the answer already: NO. Is there another number with similar properties as $e$? So that the derivative of $\exp(x)$ is the same as the function ...
80
votes
26answers
16k views

Simplest or nicest proof that $1+x \le e^x$

The elementary but very useful inequality that $1+x \le e^x$ for all real $x$ has a number of different proofs, some of which can be found online. But is there a particularly slick, intuitive or ...
14
votes
2answers
2k views

Show that $e^{x+y}=e^xe^y$ using $e^x=\lim_{n\to\infty }\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n$.

I was looking for a proof of $e^{x+y}=e^xe^y$ using the fact that $$e^x=\lim_{n\to\infty }\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n.$$ So I have that $$\left(1+\frac{x+y}{n}\right)^n=\sum_{k=0}^n\binom{n}{k}\frac{...
37
votes
8answers
3k views

What's the value of $\sum\limits_{k=1}^{\infty}\frac{k^2}{k!}$?

For some series, it is easy to say whether it is convergent or not by the "convergence test", e.g., ratio test. However, it is nontrivial to calculate the value of the sum when the series converges. ...
9
votes
6answers
736 views

Are the any non-trivial functions where $f(x)=f'(x)$ not of the form $Ae^x$

This may seem like a silly question, but I just wanted to check. I know there are proofs that if $f(x)=f'(x)$ then $f(x)=Ae^x$. But can we 'invent' another function that obeys $f(x)=f'(x)$ which is ...
52
votes
18answers
7k views

Intuitive Understanding of the constant “$e$”

Potentially related-questions, shown before posting, didn't have anything like this, so I apologize in advance if this is a duplicate. I know there are many ways of calculating (or should I say "...
17
votes
5answers
15k views

Proving that $\lim\limits_{x \to 0}\frac{e^x-1}{x} = 1$

I was messing around with the definition of the derivative, trying to work out the formulas for the common functions using limits. I hit a roadblock, however, while trying to find the derivative of $e^...
10
votes
6answers
4k views

If $z_n \to z$ then $(1+z_n/n)^n \to e^z$

We are dealing with $z \in \mathbb{C}$. I know that $$ \left(1+ \frac{z}{n} \right)^n \to e^{z} $$ as $n \to \infty$. So intuitively if $z_n \to z$ then we should have $$ \left(1+ \frac{z_n}{n} \right)...
7
votes
4answers
1k views

Why $\lim\limits_{n\to \infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n$ doesn't evaluate to 1?

I am trying to identify what the flaw is exactly when reasoning about a limit such as the definition of $\mathbf e$: $$ \lim_{n\rightarrow \infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{n}\right)^n={e} $$ Now, I know ...
19
votes
2answers
683 views

For which complex $a,\,b,\,c$ does $(a^b)^c=a^{bc}$ hold?

Wolfram Mathematica simplifies $(a^b)^c$ to $a^{bc}$ only for positive real $a, b$ and $c$. See W|A output. I've previously been struggling to understand why does $\dfrac{\log(a^b)}{\log(a)}=b$ and $\...
6
votes
1answer
688 views

Limit of $x\left(\left(1 + \frac{1}{x}\right)^x - e\right)$ when $x\to\infty$

I am stuck on how to calculate the following limit: $$\lim_{x\to\infty}x\left(\left(1 + \frac{1}{x}\right)^x - e\right).$$ Definitely, it has to be through l'Hôpital's rule. We know that $\lim_{x\to\...
15
votes
3answers
2k views

Alternative definition of hyperbolic cosine without relying on exponential function

Ordinary trigonometric functions are defined independently of exponential function, and then shown to be related to it by Euler's formula. Can one define hyperbolic cosine so that the formula $$\...
9
votes
4answers
613 views

How to solve this equation $x^{2}=2^{x}$?

How to solve this equation $$x^{2}=2^{x}$$ where $x \in \mathbb{R}$. Por tentativa erro consegui descobri que $2$ é uma solução, mas não encontrei um método pra isso. Alguma sugestão?(*) (...
14
votes
3answers
8k views

Prove $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series

In order to show $e^{x+y}=e^{x}e^{y}$ by using Exponential Series, I got the following: $$e^{x}e^{y}=\Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{x^n \over n!}\Big)\cdot \Big(\sum_{n=0}^{\infty}{y^n \over n!}\Big)=\...
21
votes
9answers
2k views

Finding the limit of $\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$

Find the limit of: $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\left(\frac{n}{n+1}\right)^n$$ I'm pretty sure it goes to zero since $(n+1)^n > n^n$ but when I input large numbers it goes to $0.36$. Also, when factoring: $...
0
votes
3answers
499 views

How to find $\lim_{n \to \infty}|\left( 1+\frac{z}{n}\right)^{n}|$? [duplicate]

This is a step on the way to proving $$ \lim_{n \to \infty}\left(1 + \frac{z}{n}\right)^{n} = e^{z}.$$ I'm looking for an answer without 1) a summation or 2) a logarithmic function. So far, I ...
53
votes
4answers
4k views

If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute?

It is known that if two matrices $A,B \in M_n(\mathbb{C})$ commute, then $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute. Is the converse true? If $e^A$ and $e^B$ commute, do $A$ and $B$ commute? Edit: Addionally, what ...
6
votes
1answer
634 views

Can the graph of $x^x$ have a real-valued plot below zero?

The function $f(x) = x^x$ gives a complex number only if x has an even denominator. I'm not sure about irrational numbers. Why, then, is the best graph I can find of that function that of Wolfram ...
11
votes
2answers
2k views

Integration by parts: $\int e^{ax}\cos(bx)\,dx$

I need to evaluate the following function and then check my answer by taking the derivative: $$\int e^{ax}\cos(bx)\,dx$$ where $a$ is any real number and $b$ is any positive real number. I know that ...
12
votes
5answers
2k views

Solve the equation $2^x=1-x$

Solve the equation: $$2^x=1-x$$ I know this is extremely easy and I know the solution using graphical approach. Basically, I can see the solution, but I can't work it out algebraically.
78
votes
2answers
26k views

Why is it hard to prove whether $\pi+e$ is an irrational number?

From this list I came to know that it is hard to conclude $\pi+e$ is an irrational? Can somebody discuss with reference "Why this is hard ?" Is it still an open problem ? If yes it will be helpful ...
11
votes
5answers
6k views

How does $e^{i x}$ produce rotation around the imaginary unit circle?

Euler’s formula states that $e^{i x} = \cos(x) + i \sin(x)$. I can see from the MacLaurin Expansion that this is indeed true; however, I don’t intuitively understand how raising $e$ to the power of $...
16
votes
5answers
3k views

Show $\lim\limits_{h\to 0} \frac{(a^h-1)}{h}$ exists without l'Hôpital or even referencing $e$ or natural log

Taking as our definition of exponentiation repeated multiplication (extended to real exponents by continuity), can we show that the limit $$\lim_{h\to 0}\dfrac{a^h-1}{h}$$ exists, without l'Hôpital,...
17
votes
4answers
2k views

Proving the irrationality of $e^n$

Let $n$ be a positive integer. I know the traditional proof that $e$ is irrational. How do we show that $e^n$ is irrational in some sort of similar line? I am of course assuming it is but I would be ...
76
votes
6answers
6k views

What's so “natural” about the base of natural logarithms?

There are so many available bases. Why is the strange number $e$ preferred over all else? Of course one could integrate $\frac{1}x$ and see this. But is there more to the story?
46
votes
21answers
6k views

Could you explain why $\frac{d}{dx} e^x = e^x$ “intuitively”?

As the title implies, It is seems that $e^x$ is the only function whoes derivative is the same as itself. thanks.
11
votes
7answers
44k views

Why does the sum of the reciprocals of factorials converge to $e$?

I've been asked by some schoolmates why we have $$ \sum_{n=0}^\infty \frac{1}{n!}=e.$$ I couldn't say much besides that the $\Gamma$ function, analytic continuation of the factorial, is defined with ...
8
votes
6answers
4k views

How to find $\lim\limits_{x\to0}\frac{e^x-1-x}{x^2}$ without using l'Hopital's rule nor any series expansion?

Is it possible to determine the limit $$\lim_{x\to0}\frac{e^x-1-x}{x^2}$$ without using l'Hopital's rule nor any series expansion? For example, suppose you are a student that has not studied ...
28
votes
7answers
5k views

Proving $\mathrm e <3$

Well I am just asking myself if there's a more elegant way of proving $$2<\exp(1)=\mathrm e<3$$ than doing it by induction and using the fact of $\lim\limits_{n\rightarrow\infty}(1+\frac1n)^n=\...
5
votes
8answers
36k views

Prove that $e^x\ge x+1$ for all real $x$ [duplicate]

Without using differentiation, logarithmic function, rigorously, prove that $$e^x\ge x+1$$ for all real values of $x$.
23
votes
18answers
2k views

How to understand why $x^0 = 1$, where $x$ is any real number?

Alright, so the idea of an exponent, $x$, is that you are multiplying its base by itself $x$ number of times. With base $5$ and $x=3$, we have that $5^3$ = $5 \cdot 5 \cdot 5$ I understand that the ...
26
votes
6answers
26k views

A question comparing $\pi^e$ to $e^\pi$ [duplicate]

I was doing an algebra problem set following a chapter on logarithms and exponentiation, and it presented this "bonus question": Without using your calculator, determine which is larger: $e^\pi$ or ...
21
votes
10answers
2k views

Why isn't $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}\left(1+\frac{1}{x}\right)^{x}$ equal to $1$?

Given $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{x})^{x}$, why can't you reduce it to $\lim \limits_{x\to\infty}(1+0)^{x}$, making the result "$1$"? Obviously, it's wrong, as the true value is $e$. Is it ...
3
votes
4answers
463 views

How to prove $\lim\limits_{n \to \infty} (1+\frac1n)^n = e$?

How to prove the following limit? $$\lim_{n \to \infty} (1+1/n)^n = e$$ I can only observe that the limit should be a very large number! Thanks.
8
votes
5answers
775 views

Solve $2^x=x^2$

I've been asked to solve this and I've tried a few things but I have trouble eliminating $x$. I first tried taking the natural log: $$x\ln \left( 2\right) =2\ln \left( x\right)$$ $$\dfrac {\ln \left( ...
26
votes
6answers
3k views

Prove $|e^{i\theta} -1| \leq |\theta|$

Could you help me to prove $$ |e^{i\theta} -1| \leq |\theta| $$ I am studying the proof of differentiability of Fourier Series, and my book used this lemma. How does it work?
14
votes
4answers
977 views

Why is $2\pi i \neq 0?$ [duplicate]

We know that $e^{\pi i} = -1$ because of de Moivre's formula. ($e^{\pi i} = \cos \pi + i\sin \pi = -1).$ Suppose we square both sides and get $e^{2\pi i} = 1$(which you also get from de Moivre's ...
7
votes
11answers
18k views

Proving $\lim \limits_{n\to +\infty } \left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n=\text{e}^x$.

I knew that $e^x=\lim \limits_{n\to+\infty }{\left(1+\frac{x}{n}\right)^n}$. But I've never seen its proof. So I tried to prove it using $\exp(\ln x)=\ln(\exp(x))=x$. Here is what I've tried so far : ...
13
votes
4answers
1k views

Confused about complex numbers

I am confused about something: \begin{eqnarray} (e^{2 i \pi})^{0.5} = (e^{2 i \pi \cdot 0.5})= e^{i \pi}=-1 \end{eqnarray} but \begin{eqnarray} e^{2 i \pi}=1~ and~ 1^{0.5}=1 \end{eqnarray} ...
13
votes
9answers
5k views

Why $e^x$ is always greater than $x^e$?

I find it very strange that $$ e^x \geq x^e \, \quad \forall x \in \mathbb{R}^+.$$ I have scratched my head for a long time, but could not find any logical reason. Can anybody explain what is the ...
5
votes
3answers
671 views

Do the polynomials $(1+z/n)^n$ converge compactly to $e^z$ on $\mathbb{C}$?

The question is Do the polynomials $p_n(x)=(1+z/n)^n$ converge compactly (or uniformly on compact subsets) to $e^z$ on $\mathbb{C}$? I thought about expanding $$p_n(z)=\sum_{k=0}^n a_k^{(n)}z^k$$ ...
3
votes
3answers
296 views

Why does $\lim_{n\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{n})^n = e$ instead of $1$? [duplicate]

On Wikipedia, it says that $\lim_{n\to\infty}(1+\frac{1}{n})^n = e$ : It [e] is approximately equal to 2.71828,[1] and is the limit of (1 + 1/n)n as n approaches infinity, ... (Source) When I ...
3
votes
2answers
220 views

Inequality $(1+\frac1k)^k \leq 3$

How can I elegantly show that: $(1 + \frac{1}{k})^k \leq 3$ For instance I could use the fact that this is an increasing function and then take $\lim_{ k\to \infty}$ and say that it equals $e$ and ...
33
votes
3answers
1k views

Limit with a big exponentiation tower

Find the value of the following limit: $$\huge\lim_{x\to\infty}e^{e^{e^{\biggl(x\,+\,e^{-\left(a+x+e^{\Large x}+e^{\Large e^x}\right)}\biggr)}}}-e^{e^{e^{x}}}$$ (original image) I don't even ...
15
votes
3answers
1k views

Can $\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$ be solved without circular reasoning?

In many places I have read that $$\lim_{h\to 0}\frac{b^h - 1}{h}$$ is by definition $\ln(b)$. Does that mean that this is unsolvable without using that fact or a related/derived one? I can of course ...
15
votes
9answers
1k views

Approximation of $e$ using $\pi$ and $\phi$?

$$e \approx \frac{4 \phi +3 \pi-5}{4}$$ where $~\phi~$ is a Golden ratio . Is it possible to construct better approximation of $e$ using $\pi$ , $\phi$ and integers ?
6
votes
1answer
529 views

How can one prove the impossibility of writing $ \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions?

Can we express $ \displaystyle \int e^{x^{2}} \, \mathrm{d}{x} $ in terms of elementary functions? (Note: Infinite series are not allowed.) If not, then is there a proof that $ \displaystyle \int e^{x^...