# Questions tagged [elementary-number-theory]

For questions on introductory topics in number theory, such as divisibility, prime numbers, gcd and lcm, congruences, linear Diophantine equations, Fermat's and Wilson's theorems, the Chinese Remainder theorem, primitive roots, quadratic congruences, quadratic number fields, Pell's equations, and related topics.

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### Grasshopper jumping on circles

Can we characterize the grasshopper sequence? Let $n\in\mathbb N$ be the number of stones $s\in\{0,1,2\dots,n-1\}=S$ on a circle that the grasshopper can jump on. Let $v(s)$ be the number of times ...
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### Is every finite list of integers coprime to $n$ congruent $\pmod n$ to a list of consecutive primes?

For example the list $(2, 1, 2, 1)$ is congruent $\pmod 3$ to the consecutive primes $(5, 7, 11, 13)$. But how about the list $(1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,2,3,4,3,2,3,1) \mod 5$? More generally, we are given ...
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### For any fixed integer $a \gt 1$, how do you prove that $\frac{a^p-1}{a-1}$ is not always prime given prime $p \not \mid a-1$?

I assumed this would be easy to prove but it turned out to be quite hard since the go to methods don't work on this problem. Once we fix any $a\gt 1$, we need an algorithm to produce a prime $p$ that ...
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### Are there unique solutions for $n=\sum_\limits{j=1}^{g(k)} a_j^k$?

Edward Waring, asks whether for every natural number $n$ there exists an associated positive integer s such that every natural number is the sum of at most $s$ $k$th powers of natural numbers (for ...
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### Dividing the whole into a minimal amount of parts to equally distribute it between different groups.

Suppose we have a finite amount of numbers $x_1, x_2, ..., x_n$ ($x_i\in\mathbb{N}$) and an object that should be divided into parts in such a way that it can be without further dividing distributed ...
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### Number as the sum of digits of some degree

We will say that the measure of a number is equal to the maximum degree in which it is possible to represent a number in the form of a sum of digits copied (You can not rearrange the numbers). For ...
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### Greedy algorithm Egyptian fractions for irrational numbers - patterns and irrationality proofs

This is related to another question on this site, but it's not a duplicate, because the actual questions I ask are completely different. In one of the answers Jeffrey Shallit provided a very useful ...
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### Is there a finite list of identites in the language of $(\mathbb{N},0,1,+,\times,\mathrm{gcd},\mathrm{lcm})$ that generates all the others?

Let $\Phi$ denote the set of all identities satisfied by $(\mathbb{N},0,1,+,\times,\mathrm{gcd},\mathrm{lcm}).$ Question. Is $\Phi$ finitely axiomatizable? If so, I'd like to see a list of ...
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### when $F_n^2+F_m^2$ is a square for fibonacci numbers

This is a curiosity question I'm trying to solve a Diophantine equation and I need some results about fibonnacci numbers, I encountered this problem: For which couple of integers $(n,m)$ the ...
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### Is $2p-2$ a period of $\{a_n\}$ modulo a prime $p$?

Let ${a_0}=1$, ${a_n}=\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} \binom{2n}{2k}a_ka_{n-k-1}$ for $n>0$. That is, ${a_n}=$ A002067(n) in OEIS. Question: for any prime $p$, is $2p-2$ a period of $\{a_n\}$ modulo $p$? And it ...
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### Do prime of the form $4k+1$ ever lead the greatest prime factor race?

Note: Posted in MO since it is unanswered in MSE. Analogous to Chebyshev's race between primes, I examined the race between primes in the greatest prime factors, GPF, of natural numbers. Similar to ...
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### Does there exist any $p >0$ such that $\frac{1}{n^p \sin(n)} \to 0 \;,n\to+\infty$?

Does there exist any $p >0$ such that \begin{equation*} \frac{1}{n^p \sin(n)} \to 0 \;,n\to+\infty \;? \end{equation*} If there is one, what's the infimum of those $p$? Is it also a minimum? I ...
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### Looking for all sequences such that $a_i^2+a_j^2=a_k^2+a_l^2$ whenever $i^2+j^2=k^2+l^2$

I'm working in a difficult functional equation, and I have reduced the problem to the following question ($\mathbb{N}$ denotes the set of non negative integers $0,1,2,3,4\cdots$) Question: Can we ...
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