# Questions tagged [division-algebras]

A division algebra $D$ is a vector spaces over a field $F$ equipped with a bilinear product and a multiplicative neutral element $1$. All the non-zero elements of $D$ have a multiplicative inverse. Associativity is often assumed but not always. Any field is a commutative, associative division algebra. A skewfield = a division ring is always a division algebra over its center. The quaternions form the best known non-commutative division algebra.

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### Why are the solutions of polynomial equations so unconstrained over the quaternions?

An $n$th-degree polynomial has at most $n$ distinct zeroes in the complex numbers. But it may have an uncountable set of zeroes in the quaternions. For example, $x^2+1$ has two zeroes in $\mathbb C$,...
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### Are all central simple algebras unital?

The definition I'm using for a CSA over a field $k$ is the following: A CSA over $k$ is a finite-dimensional associative $k$-algebra which is simple and has center precisely $k$. My question ...
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### What are some real-world uses of Octonions?

... octonions are the crazy old uncle nobody lets out of the attic: they are nonassociative. Comes from a a quote by John Baez. Clearly, the sucessor to quaterions from the Cayley-Dickson process is ...
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### Maximal central subalgebra(s) in non-central division $k$-algebra

Let $D$ be a finite dimensional (non-central) division $k$-algebra, where $k$ is a field. Is there a concrete description of the maximal subalgebra(s) of D having center $k$?
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### Galois theory for (non-commutative) division rings

Is there a 'Galois theory' with fields replaced by (non-commutative) division rings? I have googled this, and it seems that there are known results in that direction, for example, this paper which ...
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### What does $(a,b)_{\zeta}$ correspond to in $\mathrm{Br}(\mathbb{Q}_p)=\mathbb{Q}/\mathbb{Z}$

Let $p$ be a prime number, let $\mathbb{Q}_p$ be the local field, by Hensel's lemma, we know it has $p-1$-th roots of unity, let $\zeta$ be a fixed primitive $p-1$-th root of unity in $\mathbb{Q}_p$. ...
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### Maximal subfield of a central simple algebra which is not Galois

In the book Algebra IX: Finite Groups of Lie type and Finite Dimensional Algebra, the authors Kostrikin-Shafarevich mention (p. 159) that If $A$ is a central simple algebra over $F$ of finite ...
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### Invertible elements of CSA inducing Galois automorphism are linearly independent

Let $A$ be a central simple algebra over a field $F$. Let $K$ be a maximal subfield of $A$ with $[K:F]=n$ and assume $K$ is Galois extension of $F$. Let $\sigma_1,\sigma_2,\cdots,\sigma_n$ be all ...
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### Division algebra over rationals of dimension 9

I want to understand about existence of some non-commutative division algebras over $\mathbb{Q}$ of dimension $9$. Q. Does there exist a division algebra $D$ such that $D$ is non-commutative; $D$ ...
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### (Non-Associative Division Algebras) Can someone help me find where the contradiction is?

This has been bugging me for a while any help would be appreciated. The second bullet point from here says: Let A be a non-associative unital algebra with finite dimension, then it's possible to ...
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### Dimension of $End(V)$ with $V$ countable dimension irreducible module over a complex algebra

Let $A$ be a $\mathbb{C}$-algebra and $V$ be an irreducible $A$-module with countable dimension. What is the dimension of $End(V)$ as $A$-module? Note that every endomorphism must be injective and ...
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### tensor product of division algebras

Let $\Delta_{1}$ and $\Delta_{2}$ be finite dimensional division algebras over field $F$ and $\Delta_{1}$ is central, then $\Delta_{1}\otimes\Delta_{2} = M_{r}(E)$ where $E$ is a division algebra, ...
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### Subdomains of matrix algebras

Let $F$ be a field and M$_n(F)$ the ring of $n\times n$ matrices. By a domain we mean a not necessarily commutative ring without zero divisors. We consider subdomains $R$ of the ring M$_n(F)$. ...
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### Dimension of $\operatorname{End}_{\mathbb C} \mathbb H$ as $\mathbb {R}$ vector space.

On page 15 of this note $\operatorname{End}_{\mathbb C} \mathbb H$ is an $8$-dimensional real vector space. Is there a simple way to see this?
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### Finite dimensional division algebras over the reals other than $\mathbb{R},\mathbb{C},\mathbb{H},$ or $\mathbb{O}$

Have all the finite-dimensional division algebras over the reals been discovered/classified? The are many layman accessible sources on the web describing different properties of such algebras, but ...
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### Unital nonalternative real division algebras of dimension 8

The finite-dimension division algebras over the reals are: $\Bbb R$: the reals (dimension 1) $\Bbb C$: the complex numbers (dimension 2) $\Bbb H$: the quaternions (dimension 4) $\Bbb O$: the ...
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### algebraically closed for more than simple polynomials

Is there any non-trivial algebra for which any non-constant algebraic expression has a root in that algebra? For example the complex numbers have a solution for any basic polynomial, but do not have ...
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### What is this 2D division algebra?

Consider the set $A$ of 2-tuples of real values $(a,b)$, equipped with an addition defined as $$(a,b) + (c,d) = (a+c,b+d)$$ and multiplication defined as $$(a,b) \times (c,d) = (ac+bd,ad-bc).$$ ...
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### How does linear algebra over the octonions and other division algebras work?

An interesting question, which has been discussed in many forms on this site, is how many results from the study of linear algebra over vector spaces carries over when we allow the scalars to form an ...
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### Computing the inverse of a full lattice in a quaternion algebra

Let $D$ be quaternion algebra over a number field $F$. Let $\Delta\subseteq D$ be a maximal $\mathcal{O}_{F}$-order. Let $\mathfrak{b}$ be a fractional left $\Delta$-ideal. In his book "Maximal Orders"...
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### Why division ring has a center of a ring (=subring) is commutative and therefore division ring reflect itself a field?

I thought a ring was commutative for another reason but I realized that something I had not yet discovered, had led me to look for the solution in the wrong place. I see that 'commutative' property of ...
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### Which number fields can appear as subfields of a finite-dimensional division algebra over Q with center Q?

I have some idle questions about what's known about finite-dimensional division algebras over $\mathbb{Q}$ (thought of as "noncommutative number fields"). To keep the discussion focused, let's ...
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### Central simple algebras give rise to algebraic groups

Let $D$ be a central division algebra over a field $k$ of dimension $n^2$. I have heard that the functor $$R \mapsto (D \otimes_k R)^{\ast}$$ going from commutative $k$-algebras to groups is ...
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### Subfields of central division algebras over fixed global field

A generalization of this question: Let $K$ be a global field, could any finite field extension of $K$ be embedded in a finite dimensional central division algebra over $K$? The answer is true locally....
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### Is it true that a division algebra as a module over itself is a simple module?

If we have a division algebra $A$, is it just a simple module over itself? Given a submodule $B$ of $A$ and $b \in B$, $\exists$ $b^{-1} \in B:bb^{-1}=1 \in B$, and so $B = A$. Is this argument ...
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### Classification of a certain family of real division algebras

Let $A$ be a (non-commutative, not nessasarilly associative) division algebra over $\mathbb{R}$ such that $\mathbb{R}^3 \subset A$. Assume that for any two nonzero vectors $u, v \in \mathbb{R}^3$ we ...
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### Conditions for equivalent definitions of division algebra

A division algebra is defined as a (not necessarily finite dimensional, associative, or unital) algebra $A$ over a field, where $\forall a\neq0,b\in A$ the equations $ax=b$ and $ya=b$ have unique ...
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### Degree $n$ extension of local field splits degree $n$ division algebra

I am trying to write an article which is pretty self-contained on the number theory side, and would like to use the following result: Let $K$ be a local field, $n > 1$ a natural number, $D$ a ...
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### Proving that $\mathbb R^3$ cannot be made into a real division algebra (and that extending complex multiplication would not work)

I am trying to solve the following exercise: Prove that complex multiplication does not extend to a multiplication on $\mathbb R^3$ so as to make $\mathbb R^3$ into a real division algebra. I ...
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### Why does the multiplication in a division algebra depends on every component?

In a division algebra A over $\mathbb{R}$ we have this multiplication (A isomorphic to $\mathbb{R}^{n}$) $$\mathbb{R}^{n} \times \mathbb{R}^{n} \to \mathbb{R}^{n}:(x,y)\mapsto y=x\cdot y$$ where every ...
### Prove that the homomorphism $\phi:R\to S^{-1}R$ is injective if and only if $S$ contains no zero-divisors. [duplicate]
Suppose that $S\subset R$ is a multiplicative set in $R$, where $R$ is a commutative ring with identity $1\neq 0$. Prove that the homomorphism $\phi:R\to S^{-1}R$ is injective if and only if $S$ ...
Let $D$ be a division ring and let $K$ be the center of $D$. Assume $\dim_K(D)<\infty$. Why is $\dim_K(D)$ a square?