# Questions tagged [descriptive-statistics]

The area of statistics that provides descriptions of data, may it be samples or the population. This includes graphical representations and numerical indicators. No information is inferred from samples about the population, as in inferential statistics.

400 questions
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### Intuitive Way To Understand Principal Component Analysis

I know that this is meant to explain variance but the description on Wikipedia stinks and it is not clear how you can explain variance using this technique Can anyone explain it in a simple way?
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### Why is variance squared?

The mean absolute deviation is: $$\dfrac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}|x_i-\bar x|}{n}$$ The variance is: $$\dfrac{\sum_{i=1}^{n}(x_i-\bar x)^2}{n-1}$$ So the mean deviation and the variance are ...
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### How should a mathematically-inclined person learn descriptive statistics?

I am interested in learning descriptive statistics. But I am completely baffled, that there seem to be no mathematically rigorous books on this subject, as far as I know at least. The Wikipedia page ...
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### $n$ vs $n-1$ for the standard deviation

Suppose that I went to Tasmania a few years before the "Tazie Tiger" (thylacine) became extinct. I sample say, $100$ thylacines and make some biometric measurements. To make the discussion concrete, ...
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### How did Target figure out a teen girl was pregnant before her father did?

First of all I do not have a mathematics degree only a B.S. in finance so please take that into account when writing an answer. Generally what type of mathematics is involved here? And specifically ...
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### Minimal sufficient statistic of $\operatorname{Uniform}(-\theta,\theta)$

I am seeking clarification on why both the vector $(X_{(1)},X_{(n)})^T$ and $\max\{-X_{(1)},X_{(n)}\}$ are sufficient for $\operatorname{Unif}(-\theta,\theta)$, but only $\max\{-X_{(1)},X_{(n)}\}$ is ...
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### Problem related to the exact distribution and the CLT

I'm trying to solve a pretty straight forward problem but i can't find good info on the subjects necessary to solve it so i'm terribly stuck. I'll present it as follows and later try to explain my ...
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### $E[\frac{1}{X}]$ for $X\sim\Gamma(n,\theta)$

Consider iid random varibales $(X_i)_{1\le i\le n}$ with $X_i\sim Exp(\theta)$ for $1\le i\le n$ and $\theta\in(0,\infty)$. Then we have $$\sum_{i=1}^nX_i\sim \Gamma(n,\theta)$$ with density function ...
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### Unbiased estimator for $\theta$

Exercise : Let $X_1, \dots, X_n$ be a random sample $(n>1)$ from the distribution with pdf $f(x) = \theta x^{-2}, \; \; 0 < \theta \leq x < \infty$, where $\theta$ an unknown parameter. ...
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### Prove that $\log[ ( x+\sigma)^a - (x-\sigma)^a ] = (a-1) \log(x) + C$

$\sigma>0$, $a>1$ and $C$ are constant real number. Does the following holds for any $x>\sigma$? $\log[ ( x+\sigma)^a - (x-\sigma)^a ] = (a-1) \log(x) + C$. Background John Tukey, on the ...
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### Arithmetic mean is to addition as Harmonic mean is to …?

Take $n$ real numbers $x_1,\ldots,x_n.$ The Arithmetic mean $A_n=\frac{1}{n}(x_1+\ldots+x_n)$ is the answer to the question: "Which number, when added up $n$ times, is equal to the sum of the \$x_1,\...