Questions tagged [commutative-algebra]

Questions about commutative rings, their ideals, and their modules.

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692
votes
1answer
38k views

A short proof for $\dim(R[T])=\dim(R)+1$?

If $R$ is a commutative ring, it is easy to prove $\dim(R[T]) \geq \dim(R)+1$. For noetherian $R$, we have equality. Every proof I'm aware of uses quite a bit of commutative algebra and non-trivial ...
389
votes
1answer
15k views

The Ring Game on $K[x,y,z]$

I recently read about the Ring Game on MathOverflow, and have been trying to determine winning strategies for each player on various rings. The game has two players and begins with a commutative ...
130
votes
4answers
6k views

Does $R[x] \cong S[x]$ imply $R \cong S$?

This is a very simple question but I believe it's nontrivial. I would like to know if the following is true: If $R$ and $S$ are rings and $R[x]$ and $S[x]$ are isomorphic as rings, then $R$ and $...
113
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0answers
3k views

What is the Picard group of $z^3=y(y^2-x^2)(x-1)$?

I'm actually doing much more with this affine surface than just looking for the Picard group. I have already proved many things about this surface, and have many more things to look at it, but the ...
110
votes
1answer
16k views

Classification of prime ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$

Let $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ be the ring of polynomials in one variable over $\Bbb Z$. My question: Is every prime ideal of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$ one of following types? If yes, how would you prove this? $(0)$. $(...
81
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3answers
12k views

What is the Tor functor?

I'm doing the exercises in "Introduction to commutive algebra" by Atiyah&MacDonald. In chapter two, exercises 24-26 assume knowledge of the Tor functor. I have tried Googling the term, but I don'...
70
votes
0answers
972 views

Classification of local Artin (commutative) rings which are finite over an algebraically closed field.

A result in deformation theory states that if every morphism $Y=\operatorname{Spec}(A)\rightarrow X$ where $A$ is a local Artin ring finite over $k$ can be extended to every $Y'\supset Y$ where $Y'$ ...
69
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6answers
28k views

Why can't the Polynomial Ring be a Field?

I'm currently studying Polynomial Rings, but I can't figure out why they are Rings, not Fields. In the definition of a Field, a Set builds a Commutative Group with Addition and Multiplication. This ...
61
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8answers
8k views

Using Gröbner bases for solving polynomial equations

In my attempts to understand just how computer algebra systems "do things", I tried to dig around a bit on Gröbner bases, which are described almost everywhere as "a generalization of the Euclidean ...
59
votes
10answers
11k views

Why is the tensor product important when we already have direct and semidirect products?

Can anyone explain me as to why Tensor Products are important, and what makes Mathematician's to define them in such a manner. We already have Direct Product, Semi-direct products, so after all why do ...
59
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5answers
12k views

Reference request: introduction to commutative algebra

My goal is to pick up some commutative algebra, ultimately in order to be able to understand algebraic geometry texts like Hartshorne's. Three popular texts are Atiyah-Macdonald, Matsumura (...
55
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4answers
4k views

How does one give a mathematical talk?

Sometime tomorrow morning I will be presenting a mathematics talk on something related to commutative algebra. The people present there will probably be two mathematicians (an algebraic geometer and a ...
52
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2answers
3k views

What are exact sequences, metaphysically speaking?

Why is it natural or useful to organize objects (of some appropriate category) into exact sequences? Exact sequences are ubiquitous - and I've encountered them enough to know that they can provide a ...
45
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3answers
5k views

Ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$

Is it possible to classify all ideals of $\mathbb{Z}[X]$? By this I mean a preferably short enumerable list which contains every ideal exactly once, preferably specified by generators. The prime ...
42
votes
5answers
17k views

Why are maximal ideals prime?

Could anyone explain to me why maximal ideals are prime? I'm approaching it like this, let $R$ be a commutative ring with $1$ and let $A$ be a maximal ideal. Let $a,b\in R:ab\in A$. I'm trying to ...
42
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7answers
7k views

Easy way to show that $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt[3]{2}]$ is the ring of integers of $\mathbb{Q}[\sqrt[3]{2}]$

This seems to be one of those tricky examples. I only know one proof which is quite complicated and follows by localizing $\mathbb{Z}[\sqrt[3]{2}]$ at different primes and then showing it's a DVR. ...
42
votes
3answers
6k views

Why does a minimal prime ideal consist of zerodivisors?

Let $A$ be a commutative ring. Suppose $P \subset A$ is a minimal prime ideal. Then it is a theorem that $P$ consists of zero-divisors. This can be proved using localization, when $A$ is noetherian: $...
41
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4answers
9k views

Surjective endomorphisms of finitely generated modules are isomorphisms

My Problem: Let $M$ be a finitely generated $A$-module and $T$ an endomorphism. I want to show that if $T$ is surjective then it is invertible. My attempt: Let $m_1,...,m_n$ be the generators of $M$ ...
41
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4answers
5k views

Proving the snake lemma without a diagram chase

Suppose we have two short exact sequences in an abelian category $$0 \to A \mathrel{\overset{f}{\to}} B \mathrel{\overset{g}{\to}} C \to 0 $$ $$0 \to A' \mathrel{\overset{f'}{\to}} B' \...
40
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4answers
38k views

A commutative ring is a field iff the only ideals are $(0)$ and $(1)$

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with identity. Show that $R$ is a field if and only if the only ideals of $R$ are $R$ itself and the zero ideal $(0)$. I can't figure out where to start other that I ...
40
votes
1answer
1k views

Is Frobenius the only magical automorphism?

The Frobenius automorphism is special because the $p$-power map makes sense in any characteristic $p$ ring, which allows us to canonically extend the Galois-theoretic Frobenius to any such ring. I don'...
39
votes
2answers
13k views

Why is the localization at a prime ideal a local ring?

I would like to know, why $ \mathfrak{p} A_{\mathfrak{p}} $ is the maximal ideal of the local ring $ A_{\mathfrak{p}} $, where $ \mathfrak{p} $ is a prime ideal of $ A $ and $ A_{\mathfrak{p}} $ is ...
38
votes
5answers
16k views

Example of modules that are projective but not free; torsion-free but not free

Free modules are projective, and projective modules are direct summands of free modules. Are there examples of projective modules that are not free? (I know this is not possible for modules of ...
38
votes
4answers
5k views

Commutative non Noetherian rings in which all maximal ideals are finitely generated

In commutative rings we have the following Theorem. $R$ is Noetherian if and only if each prime ideal of $R$ is finitely generated. From this Theorem I am looking for commutative rings $R$ in which ...
37
votes
1answer
863 views

A ring isomorphic to its finite polynomial rings but not to its infinite one.

I was messing with the ring $k[x_1,\dots,x_n,\dots]$ of polynomials in numerable many variables in order to solve an exercise of Atiyah, and the following question came to me and made me curious: ...
36
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4answers
5k views

If $\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}A$ is not connected then there is a nontrivial idempotent

I'm solving a problem from Atiyah-Macdonald. I have to show that if $X=\mathop{\mathrm{Spec}}A$ is not connected then $A$ contains idempotents $e \neq 0,1$. The converse is easy. If $e \in A$ is ...
35
votes
2answers
7k views

Tensor products commute with direct limits

This is Exercise 2.20 in Atiyah-Macdonald. How can we prove that $\varinjlim (M_i \otimes N) \cong (\varinjlim M_i) \otimes N$ ? Atiyah-Macdonald give a suggestion, they say that one should ...
34
votes
3answers
4k views

My proof of $I \otimes N \cong IN$ is clearly wrong, but where have I gone wrong?

Ok, I'm reading some thesis of some former students, and come up with this proof, but it doesn't really look good to me. So I guess it should be wrong somewhere. So, here it goes: Let $R$ be a ...
34
votes
4answers
2k views

$\mathbb C[X]/(X^2)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb R[Y]/((Y^2+1)^2)$

This question led me to the following: Prove that $\mathbb C[X]/(X^2)$ is isomorphic to $\mathbb R[Y]/((Y^2+1)^2)$.
34
votes
1answer
2k views

Does Nakayama Lemma imply Cayley-Hamilton Theorem?

Consider the Cayley-Hamilton Theorem in the following form: CH: Let $A$ be a commutative ring, $\mathfrak{a}$ an ideal of $A$, $M$ a finitely generated $A$-module, $\phi$ an $A$-module endomorphism ...
33
votes
5answers
9k views

Zero divisor in $R[x]$

Let $R$ be commutative ring with no (nonzero) nilpotents. If $f(x) = a_0+a_1x+\cdots+a_nx^n$ is a zero divisor in $R[x]$, how do I show there's an element $b \ne 0$ in $R$ such that $ba_0=ba_1=\cdots=...
33
votes
2answers
5k views

necessary and sufficient condition for trivial kernel of a matrix over a commutative ring

In answering Do these matrix rings have non-zero elements that are neither units nor zero divisors? I was surprised how hard it was to find anything on the Web about the generalization of the ...
33
votes
1answer
1k views

Wanted: A purely algebraic proof of the Frobenius theorem on distributions

Is there a purely algebraic proof of the Frobenius theorem? Here's a rough sketch of what i'm looking for: Let $Der(R)$ denote the $R$-module of ($R$-valued) derivations of the algebra $R$ endowed ...
32
votes
6answers
10k views

Proving that surjective endomorphisms of Noetherian modules are isomorphisms and a semi-simple and noetherian module is artinian.

I am revising for my Rings and Modules exam and am stuck on the following two questions: $1.$ Let $M$ be a noetherian module and $ \ f : M \rightarrow M \ $ a surjective homomorphism. Show that $f ...
32
votes
6answers
3k views

Why are ideals more important than subrings?

I have read that subgroups, subrings, submodules, etc. are substructures. But if you look at the definition of the Noetherian rings and Noetherian modules, Noetherian rings are defined with ideals ...
31
votes
5answers
7k views

Showing the set of zero-divisors is a union of prime ideals

I'm working on an exercise from Atiyah and MacDonald's Commutative Algebra, and have hit a bump on Exercise 14 of Chapter 1. In a ring $A$, let $\Sigma$ be the set of all ideals in which every ...
31
votes
4answers
4k views

Is $\operatorname{height} \mathfrak{p} + \dim A / \mathfrak{p} = \dim A$ true?

Let $A$ be an integral domain of finite Krull dimension. Let $\mathfrak{p}$ be a prime ideal. Is it true that $$\operatorname{height} \mathfrak{p} + \dim A / \mathfrak{p} = \dim A$$ where $\dim$ ...
31
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3answers
1k views

A Laskerian non-Noetherian ring

A Laskerian ring is a ring in which every ideal has a primary decomposition. The Lasker-Noether theorem states that every commutative Noetherian ring is a Laskerian ring (as an easy consequence of the ...
31
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1answer
3k views

Does localisation commute with Hom for finitely-generated modules?

Question. Let $R$ be a ring, $\mathfrak{p}$ a prime, $M$ a finitely-generated $R$-module, and $N$ any $R$-module. Is the natural map $$\textrm{Hom}_R(M, N)_\mathfrak{p} \to \textrm{Hom}_{R_\mathfrak{p}...
30
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3answers
2k views

What does the topology on $\operatorname{Spec}(R)$ tells us about $R$?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring with a unit. $\newcommand{\spec}{\operatorname{Spec}}\spec(R)$ denotes the set of all prime ideals in $R$, and it can be topologized using the Zariski topology. Last ...
29
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5answers
4k views

Intuitive explanation of Nakayama's Lemma

Nakayama's lemma states that given a finitely generated $A$-module $M$, and $J(A)$ the Jacobson radical of $A$, with $I\subseteq J(A)$ some ideal, then if $IM=M$, we have $M=0$. I've read the proof, ...
28
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6answers
4k views

If the localization of a ring $R$ at every prime ideal is an integral domain, must $R$ be an integral domain?

Let $R$ be a commutative ring. Suppose that for every prime ideal $\mathfrak p$ of $R$, the localization $R_{\mathfrak p}$ is an integral domain. Must $R$ be a integral domain? I was trying to think ...
28
votes
2answers
1k views

What is the coproduct of fields, when it exists?

This is a slightly more advanced version of another question here. Let $\textbf{CRing}$ be the category of commutative rings with unit. Let $\textbf{Dom}$ be the category of integral domains – by ...
27
votes
1answer
969 views

Connectedness of the spectrum of a tensor product.

Let $A$, $B$ be finite free $\mathbb{Z}$-algebras such that $\operatorname{Spec}(A)$ and $\operatorname{Spec}(B)$ are both connected. Is $\operatorname{Spec}(A\otimes_{\mathbb{Z}} B)$ connected?
26
votes
4answers
6k views

Tensor product algebra $\mathbb{C}\otimes_\mathbb{R} \mathbb{C}$

I want to understand the tensor product $\mathbb C$-algebra $\mathbb{C}\otimes_\mathbb{R} \mathbb{C}$. Of course it must be isomorphic to $\mathbb{C}\times\mathbb{C}.$ How can one construct an ...
26
votes
4answers
2k views

Why isn't $\mathbb{C}[x,y,z]/(xz-y)$ a flat $\mathbb{C}[x,y]$-module

Why isn't $M = \mathbb{C}[x,y,z]/(xz-y)$ a flat $R = \mathbb{C}[x,y]$-module? The reason given on the book is "the surface defined by $y-xz$ doesn't lie flat on the $(x,y)$-plane". But I don't ...
26
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1answer
1k views

History of Commutative Algebra

There are books on the history of Algebraic Geometry, there are also papers about it (all had done by J. Dieudonné). But I could not find any book or paper about the history of Commutative Algebra. ...
25
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4answers
9k views

An integral domain whose every prime ideal is principal is a PID

Does anyone has a simple proof of the following fact: An integral domain whose every prime ideal is principal is a principal ideal domain (PID).
25
votes
3answers
3k views

$A^m\hookrightarrow A^n$ implies $m\leq n$ for a ring $A\neq 0$

I'm trying to prove that if $A\neq 0$ is a commutative ring and there is an injective $A$-module homomorphism $A^m\hookrightarrow A^n$ then $m\leq n$ must necessarily hold. This is exercise 2.11 ...
25
votes
2answers
4k views

A subring of the field of fractions of a PID is a PID as well.

Let $A$ be a PID and $R$ a ring such that $A\subset R \subset \operatorname{Frac}(A)$, where $\operatorname{Frac}(A)$ denotes the field of fractions of $A$. How to show $R$ is also a PID? Any hints?

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