Questions tagged [cesaro-summable]

For questions about Cesàro summation and Cesàro summable sequences.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
25
votes
3answers
9k views

Prove convergence of the sequence $(z_1+z_2+\cdots + z_n)/n$ of Cesaro means [duplicate]

Prove that if $\lim_{n \to \infty}z_{n}=A$ then: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots + z_{n}}{n}=A$$ I was thinking spliting it in: $$(z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots+z_{N-1})+(z_{N}+z_{N+1}+\cdots+z_{n}...
16
votes
1answer
13k views

Convergence of series implies convergence of Cesaro Mean. [duplicate]

Proof. Let $\sum_{k = 0}^N c_k \rightarrow s$, let $\sigma_N = (S_0 + \dots + S_{N-1})/N$ be the $Nth$ Cesaro sum where $S_K$ is the $Kth$ partial sum of the series. Then $s - \sigma_N \\= s - c_0 - ...
13
votes
3answers
494 views

Is the product of a Cesàro summable sequence of $0$s and $1$s Cesàro summable?

Suppose $a_n$ and $b_n$ to be Cesàro summable sequences of zeros and ones, $a_n\in\{0,1\}$ and $b_n\in\{0,1\}$, i.e. the limits $$ \lim_{N\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^{N}a_n, $$ and $$ \...
11
votes
1answer
510 views

Can we show that $1+2+3+\dotsb=-\frac{1}{12}$ using only stability or linearity, not both, and without regularizing or specifying a summation method?

Regarding the proof by Tony Padilla and Ed Copeland that $1+2+3+\dotsb=-\frac{1}{12}$ popularized by a recent Numberphile video, most seem to agree that the proof is incorrect, or at least, is not ...
8
votes
2answers
1k views

Bounded sequence with divergent Cesaro means

Is there a bounded real-valued sequence with divergent Cesaro means (i.e. not Cesaro summable)? More specifically, is there a bounded sequence $\{w_k\}\in l^\infty$ such that $$\lim_{M\rightarrow\...
8
votes
2answers
137 views

Are sequences with Cesaro mean a closed subset of $\ell_\infty$?

How can we show that the bounded sequences which are Cesaro summable, i.e., the sequences such that the limit $$\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{x_1+\dots+x_n}n$$ exists, form a closed subset of $\ell_\...
6
votes
4answers
346 views

Does $\sum_{i=1}^\infty a_i/i < \infty$ imply that $a_i$ has Cesaro mean zero?

If $(a_i)_{i=1}^\infty$ is a sequence of positive real numbers such that: $$ \sum_{i=1}^\infty \frac{a_i}{i} < \infty. $$ Does this mean that the sequence $(a_i)_{i=1}^\infty$ has Cesaro mean ...
6
votes
1answer
78 views

(Non-) Convergence of $\frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=0}^{n - 1} \exp\left(2i \pi [\frac{3 + \sqrt{5}}{2}]^k\right)$ when $n \to +\infty$

Let be $$\forall n > 0, S_n = \dfrac{1}{n} \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n - 1} \exp(2i\pi u_k),\quad \forall k \geq 0, u_k = \left(\dfrac{3 + \sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^k$$ I would like to prove or disprove the ...
5
votes
6answers
200 views

Finding $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^p+3^p+…+(2n+1)^p}{n^{p+1}}$

I'm trying to solve the following problem: Find $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^p+3^p+\ldots+(2n+1)^p}{n^{p+1}}$$ What I've got so far: My idea is to use Stolz-Cesaro theorem, which implies that: $$ \...
5
votes
2answers
461 views

A result on sequences: $x_n\to x$ implies $\frac{x_1+\dots+x_n}n\to x$ without using Stolz-Cesaro [duplicate]

If $x_n \to x$, how might we prove $$\lim_{n \to \infty} \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{n} x_i}{n} = x$$ Of course, one has $\limsup x_n = \liminf x_n = x$, and thus, using the Stolz-Cesaro theorem: $$\liminf ...
5
votes
2answers
322 views

Cesáro sums and the actual limit

My textbook, as an aside, defines the Cesáro sum as follows: $$ \sigma_n= \frac{s_1+...+s_n}{n}= \frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^ns_k, $$ where $$ s_n = \sum_{k=1}^na_k. $$ This method is used, I am told, to ...
4
votes
4answers
325 views

Example of $(b_n)$ such that $\lim_{n\to\infty} {\frac1n}\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}b_i$ does not exists and $0\le b_n\le 1$

Find a ${{b_n}}$ $n\in\Bbb N$ and $0\le b_n\le 1$ such as the limit $$\lim_{n\to\infty} {\frac1n}\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}b_i$$ does not exist. I don't know how to deal with this problem, it seems to me that ...
4
votes
1answer
77 views

Prove that if $\sqrt[n]{\prod\limits_{i\leq n}a_i}$ converges to a finite limit then $a_n$ converges

Prove that if $$\lim_{n\to\infty} \sqrt[n]{\prod_{i\leq n}a_i} < \infty$$ then $\lim_{n\to\infty} a_n$ exists. Given that $\{a_i\}$ is bounded and positive. So I used Cesaro means to show that $\...
4
votes
2answers
107 views

Is boundedness required in equivalence between $\frac1n\sum_{k=1}^na_k\to0$ and $\frac1n\sum_{k=1}^na_k^2\to0$?

Suppose $a_n$ is a sequence of non-negative real numbers. If $a_n$ are un-bounded, then I want to know if $\dfrac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^na_k\to0$ as $n\to\infty$ is equivalent to $\dfrac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^...
4
votes
1answer
1k views

convergence of sequence of averages the other way around

In a vector normed space, if $ \{x_n\} \longrightarrow x $ then $ z_n = \dfrac{x_1 + \cdots+x_n}{n} \longrightarrow x $ Is it true the other way arround too? meaning: if $ z_n = \dfrac{x_1 + \...
4
votes
1answer
93 views

Convergence of a Cesaro sequence

Let $\{a_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a sequence such that $a_i\in[0,1]$ for every $i\in \mathbb{N}$, and suppose that $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n a_i = p.$$ Does $$\frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^...
4
votes
1answer
282 views

Abel/Cesaro summable implies Borel summable?

Does Abel or Cesaro summable imply Borel summable for a series? In other words, for a sequence $(a_n)$ and its partial sums $(s_n)$, is it true that: $\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} ...
4
votes
0answers
136 views

Banach limit for Cesaro summable sequences

I'm solving an exercise from Lax's Functional analysis. The section concerns generalized limits (more particularly, Banach limits), which are obtained by applying the Hahn-Banach theorem to the ...
4
votes
0answers
132 views

Cesaro and Tandori sequence spaces, representations and duality

Definitions. Fix $1\leq p\leq\infty$. Given a scalar sequence $a=(a_n)_{n=1}^\infty$, denote by $\tilde{a}=(\tilde{a}_n)_{n=1}^\infty$, where each $\tilde{a}_n=\sup_{k\geq n}|a_k|$. Now we define ...
4
votes
1answer
281 views

What useful properties does usual summation have, but alternatives do not? (Cesaro, etc)

Before I really ask my question, I want to give my train of reasoning. Suppose we have some method of summation (as I understand, assigning a number to a series) that satisfies some or all of ...
3
votes
2answers
633 views

Limit of the Cesaro sum of the product of 0-1 sequences.

Assume that $a_n$ and $b_n$ are 0-1 sequences such that $$ \lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N a_n = \lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N b_n = p. $$ Let also $c_n$ an other 0-1 sequence. ...
3
votes
2answers
130 views

asymptotics of sum

I wanna find asymptotic of sum below $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{[\sqrt{n}]}\frac{1}{k}(1 - \frac{1}{n})^k$$ assume I know asymptotic of this sum (I can be wrong): $$\sum\limits_{k=1}^{n}\frac{1}{k}(1 - \...
3
votes
2answers
659 views

Cesàro summable sequences

During some homeworks the following question came into my mind (it is not part of the homeworks): Let $(a_k)_{k \in \mathbb{N}}$ be a Cesàro summable sequence in $\mathbb{C}$ and let $a := \lim_{n \...
3
votes
1answer
74 views

Cesaro continiuity leads linearity

I need just a hint please. It seems that I have to prove that $f(x)=mx$ in which $m\in \mathbb{R}.$ But I couldn't handle it. Problem: We say that a sequence $x_{n}\; , n = 1, 2,\cdots ,$ ...
3
votes
2answers
391 views

Is the Cesàro Sumation of Series divergent to infinity divergent?

More specifically the question is: If I have a series $(u_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}} \subset \mathbb{R}$ that diverges to infinity. Then it's cesaro sumation series $(s_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}=(\frac{1}{n+1}\...
3
votes
2answers
350 views

Cesaro mean of Cesaro means

Is it possible to construct a bounded positive sequence $a_i$, ($0 < a_i < K < \infty$) such that the limit of its Cesaro mean does not exist but the limit of the Cesaro mean of its Cesaro ...
3
votes
1answer
227 views

Cesaro summation

Let's consider $\{a_{n} \} -$ a bounded sequence of real numbers. Is it true that $\frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}{|a_{k}|^{p}}$ (Cesaro sums) converges or diverges for all $p \geq 1$? (more presicely: ...
3
votes
2answers
84 views

Show that for a sequence of real numbers $(a_n)_n$ $\lim_n a_n=0$ implies $\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\lvert a_i\rvert=0$

Let $(a_n)_{n\in\mathbb{N}}$ be q sequence of real numbers with $\lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=0$. Show that this implies $$ \lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=0}^{n-1}\lvert a_i\rvert=0. $$ This is my idea ...
3
votes
1answer
113 views

Question about Cesàro summation

Consider $$S_n = \sum_{i=0}^n a_i$$ and its Cesàro sums, defined as $$ C = \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac1n\sum_{k=0}^n S_k$$ Is it always true that $$ C = \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac1{L(n)}\sum_{k= n - L(n)}...
3
votes
1answer
65 views

Summation approaches zero

if I have a sequence $A=$ $\frac{1}{n} \sum _{k=1}^n kC_k$ and $nC_n$ approaches $0$ as $n$ approaches infinity, then how can I show that $A$ goes to $0$? I just need it for my proof of the Tauber's ...
3
votes
1answer
1k views

Cesaro summable series

A series $\sum_{k=0}^{∞}a_k$ is said to be Cesaro summable to an $L\in R$ if and only if $\sigma_n = \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}(1 - \frac{k}{n})a_k$ converges to $L$ as $n$ → $∞$. Let $s_n = \sum_{k=0}^{n-1}...
3
votes
2answers
269 views

Cesàro summability implies convergence of (conventional) sum when $\sum_{n=1}^\infty na_n^2<\infty$

Suppose that series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty na_n^2<\infty$ and $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is Cesàro summable. How do you show that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges? I know that if $\lim_{n\rightarrow \...
3
votes
2answers
205 views

Cesàro summability and $\sum n \lvert a_n\rvert ^2 < \infty$ implies convergence

How can I prove that if $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is Cesàro summable and if $\sum_{n=1}^\infty n |a_n|^2 < \infty$, then $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges?
3
votes
0answers
272 views

Equivalent of Cesaro or Abel Summation for Limits

Functions such as sin(x) are not considered to have limits as x approaches infinity. Sequences such as Grandi's series of 1-1+1-1+1... are not considered to have sums classically but with expanded ...
2
votes
3answers
471 views

Can an unbounded sequence have a convergent cesaro mean?

I was wondering if an unbounded sequence may have a convergent cesaro mean ($\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=1}^n a_n$). I was maybe thinking of $$a_n = (-n)^n$$ as a sequence having a convergent mean, but I might ...
2
votes
2answers
488 views

General Cesaro summation with weight

Assume that $a_n\to \ell $ is a convergent sequence of complex numbers and $\{\lambda_n\}$ is a sequence of positive real numbers such that $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}\lambda_k = \infty$ Then, show ...
2
votes
1answer
62 views

$a_n=(-1)^{n-1}, \; s_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i$ then find $ \lim_{n\to \infty}\frac{s_1+s_2+\dots s_n}{n}$

$a_n=(-1)^{n-1}, \; s_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i$ then find $ \lim_{n\to > \infty}\frac{s_1+s_2+\dots s_n}{n}$ $$s_k=1,\; \text{if k is odd and } s_k=0 \text{ if k is even} $$ Cauchy's theorem for a ...
2
votes
3answers
95 views

Show that $\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty}\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{((n+1)-i)a_i}{n^2} = \frac{a}{2} $

Assume $a_n \to a$. Then Show that $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{((n+1)-i)a_i}{n^2} = \frac{a}{2} $$ So as $a_n \to a$ we know $\forall \epsilon, \exists N, \forall n \ge N ,|a_n - a | &...
2
votes
1answer
166 views

Is $(-1/2)^n$ Cesaro summable?

It is easy if $S_n=(-1)^n$; it is Cesaro summable to $0$. But I am unable to find if the sequence $S_n=(-1/2)^n$ is Cesaro summable or not.
2
votes
1answer
161 views

Proving a converse of the Cesaro theorem under extra assumptions

I'm trying to prove that, given $(u_n)_n \in \mathbb{C}^\mathbb{N}$ verifying $ u_{n+1}-u_n =_{n} o(\frac{1}{n})$, the following holds: $$ \lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{u_1+...+u_n}{n} = a \in \mathbb{C} \...
2
votes
1answer
153 views

Does Cesàro continuity imply continuity?

Following the known definition "a function is continuous at $x_0$ iff for any sequence $(u_n)_\Bbb{N}$ converging to $x_0$, the sequence $(f(u_n))_\Bbb{N}$ converges to $f(x_0)$", let's say that a ...
2
votes
1answer
254 views

Divergent succession, but with convergent sum average.

An example of a sequence $a_n$ such that: $$a_n\rightarrow\pm\infty$$ but $$b_n=\frac{\sum_{k=1}^{n}a_k}{n}$$ converge.
2
votes
1answer
252 views

Limit of $n$-Cesaro summation as $n \to \infty$

I recently learned that a Cesaro summation extends the usual summation in the following way: Given a sequence $a_1, a_2, \ldots $ we construct the Cesaro sequence by defining $$\sigma_n = \frac{1}{n}\...
2
votes
1answer
290 views

A bound on sup-norm of Fourier series

Let $f$ be a Riemann integrable function on $[-\pi,\pi]$ such that $\hat{f}(n)\leq \frac{K}{|n|}$ for some constant $K$, for all $n\neq 0$. Show that $|S_N(f)|_\infty\leq |f|_\infty+2K$. Here$\hat{f}(...
2
votes
1answer
629 views

Calculating the Cesaro sum of $1-1+0+1-1+0+\dots$

I am having difficulty understanding how to find the Cesaro sum of the series: $1-1+0+1-1+0+\dots$ I know the sequence of partial sums will be: $1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,\dots$ And hence the ...
2
votes
1answer
229 views

Rate of convergence of Cesàro means

For a sequence $a_n = O(n^{-1/2})$ as $n\to\infty$, consider the corresponding Cesàro means $b_n = \frac{1}{n} \sum_{j=1}^n a_j$. Is it possible to derive the rate of convergence for the sequence $...
2
votes
1answer
67 views

Let a sequence of real numbers $(s_n)$ is one-sided bounded. Is the Cesaro mean of the sequence $(s_n)$ also one-sided bounded?

Let $(s_n)$ be a sequence of real numbers and $(s_n)\geq -C$ for some $C\geq 0.$ I wonder if the sequence of Cesaro means of $(s_n)$ $$\sigma_n(s)=\frac{1}{n+1}\sum_{k=0}^{n}s_k$$ is also one-sided ...
2
votes
1answer
359 views

Cesaro means of uniformly convergent sequence of functions also converges

Statement of the problem: Prove: If a sequence of complex functions $s_n$ on a set $X$ converges uniformly to a complex function $s$, then the sequence of Cesaro means $\sigma_N$ also converges ...
2
votes
0answers
122 views

If a series of complex numbers $\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ converges to $s$ then $\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ is Cesàro summable to $s$

Prove that if a series of complex numbers $\displaystyle\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ converges to $s$ then we have $\displaystyle\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ is Cesàro summable to $s$ . My ...
2
votes
0answers
69 views

multidimensional pointwise convergence of manipulated Fourier series - reference request

For a continuous complex-valued continuous function $f$ on the unit circle $\mathbb{T}$, we have that $f\ast K_n$ converges uniformly to $f$, where $K_n$ are the Fejér kernels defined by taking Césaro ...