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Questions tagged [cesaro-summable]

For questions about Cesàro summation and Cesàro summable sequences.

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Geometric meaning of the Césaro limit of Geometric sequence on the Torus.

As a motivattion for an introdutory notion in our Ergodic lecuture, we were asked to give a Geometric meaning to the following limit. Let $\lambda\in \Bbb T$ $$\lim_{n\to \infty}\frac1n\sum_{k=0}^{...
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General Cesaro summation with weight

Assume that $a_n\to \ell $ is a convergent sequence of complex numbers and $\{\lambda_n\}$ is a sequence of positive real numbers such that $\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}\lambda_k = \infty$ Then, show ...
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58 views

$a_n=(-1)^{n-1}, \; s_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i$ then find $ \lim_{n\to \infty}\frac{s_1+s_2+\dots s_n}{n}$

$a_n=(-1)^{n-1}, \; s_n=\sum_{i=1}^{n}a_i$ then find $ \lim_{n\to > \infty}\frac{s_1+s_2+\dots s_n}{n}$ $$s_k=1,\; \text{if k is odd and } s_k=0 \text{ if k is even} $$ Cauchy's theorem for a ...
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Convergence of infinite products

I wonder, parallel to the theory of summability of infinite series is there a theory for infinite products? Is there any generalized convergence method (such as Cesaro and Abel summability) for the ...
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479 views

Is the product of a Cesàro summable sequence of $0$s and $1$s Cesàro summable?

Suppose $a_n$ and $b_n$ to be Cesàro summable sequences of zeros and ones, $a_n\in\{0,1\}$ and $b_n\in\{0,1\}$, i.e. the limits $$ \lim_{N\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^{N}a_n, $$ and $$ \...
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273 views

Abel/Cesaro summable implies Borel summable?

Does Abel or Cesaro summable imply Borel summable for a series? In other words, for a sequence $(a_n)$ and its partial sums $(s_n)$, is it true that: $\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{k=0}^{n-1} ...
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Cesaro Means decrease slower than the sequence

For a strictly decreasing sequence of positive real numbers, I want to show that the Cesaro means decrease slower than the sequence itself. In particular, I need $$\dfrac{C_n}{C_{n+1}}<\dfrac{a_n}{...
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1answer
72 views

Cesàro summability

Suppose $(a_n)$ is a Cesàro summable sequence of positive real numbers (i.e., $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n a_i$ exists and is finite) and $(b_n)$ is a bounded sequence of positive ...
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Banach limit for Cesaro summable sequences

I'm solving an exercise from Lax's Functional analysis. The section concerns generalized limits (more particularly, Banach limits), which are obtained by applying the Hahn-Banach theorem to the ...
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Hardy's power series. Cesàro convergence

Doing my analysis homework i have come across the following power series known as Hardy's power series $$\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}a_kx^k=\sum\limits_{k=0}^{\infty}(-1)^kx^{2^k}\mbox{ for x}\in[0,1],$$...
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Do the partial sums of a divergent series converge to Cesaro or Abel sums in some metric?

Let $(a_n)$ be a sequence in $\mathbb{R}$, and let $s_n$ be the $n^{th}$ partial sum of the sequence. Then the Cesaro sum of $(a_n)$ is the limit of the average of the first $n$ partial sums as $n$ ...
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Cesàro summability implies convergence of (conventional) sum when $\sum_{n=1}^\infty na_n^2<\infty$

Suppose that series $\sum_{n=1}^\infty na_n^2<\infty$ and $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ is Cesàro summable. How do you show that $\sum_{n=1}^\infty a_n$ converges? I know that if $\lim_{n\rightarrow \...
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Infinite/Recursive Cesàro Summation of $\zeta(1)$

Is anything known about this kind of `infinite' Cesàro summation (or any related types of summation)? If we have a function we wish to sum $f(n)$, but $$ S^0[f] = \sum_{n=1}^\infty f(n) $$ diverges, ...
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(Non-) Convergence of $\frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=0}^{n - 1} \exp\left(2i \pi [\frac{3 + \sqrt{5}}{2}]^k\right)$ when $n \to +\infty$

Let be $$\forall n > 0, S_n = \dfrac{1}{n} \sum\limits_{k=0}^{n - 1} \exp(2i\pi u_k),\quad \forall k \geq 0, u_k = \left(\dfrac{3 + \sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^k$$ I would like to prove or disprove the ...
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Limit of the Cesaro sum of the product of 0-1 sequences.

Assume that $a_n$ and $b_n$ are 0-1 sequences such that $$ \lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N a_n = \lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N b_n = p. $$ Let also $c_n$ an other 0-1 sequence. ...
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If a series of complex numbers $\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ converges to $s$ then $\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ is Cesàro summable to $s$

Prove that if a series of complex numbers $\displaystyle\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ converges to $s$ then we have $\displaystyle\sum_{n\in{\bf Z}_{\ge0}}c_{n}$ is Cesàro summable to $s$ . My ...
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Show that $\sum c_n$ is not Cesaro summable

Consider the sequence $c_n=(-1)^{n-1}n$ Show that $\sum c_n$ is not Cesaro summable using the hint: "If $\sum c_n$ is Cesaro summable, then $\frac {c_n}{n}$ tends to $0$" the $N^{th}$ Cesaro sum of ...
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Convergence of a Cesaro sequence

Let $\{a_n\}_{n=1}^{\infty}$ be a sequence such that $a_i\in[0,1]$ for every $i\in \mathbb{N}$, and suppose that $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n a_i = p.$$ Does $$\frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^...
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Follow-up question: Cesaro mean of cesaro mean of …

In this post, Cesaro mean of Cesaro means, benny asked about a bounded sequence for which the Cesàro mean diverges, but the Cesàro mean of the Cesàro mean converges (which still isn't answered ...
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Cesaro mean of Cesaro means

Is it possible to construct a bounded positive sequence $a_i$, ($0 < a_i < K < \infty$) such that the limit of its Cesaro mean does not exist but the limit of the Cesaro mean of its Cesaro ...
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1answer
165 views

Is $(-1/2)^n$ Cesaro summable?

It is easy if $S_n=(-1)^n$; it is Cesaro summable to $0$. But I am unable to find if the sequence $S_n=(-1/2)^n$ is Cesaro summable or not.
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Show that $\displaystyle \lim_{n \to \infty}\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{((n+1)-i)a_i}{n^2} = \frac{a}{2} $

Assume $a_n \to a$. Then Show that $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\sum_{i=1}^n \frac{((n+1)-i)a_i}{n^2} = \frac{a}{2} $$ So as $a_n \to a$ we know $\forall \epsilon, \exists N, \forall n \ge N ,|a_n - a | &...
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Bounded sequence with divergent Cesaro means

Is there a bounded real-valued sequence with divergent Cesaro means (i.e. not Cesaro summable)? More specifically, is there a bounded sequence $\{w_k\}\in l^\infty$ such that $$\lim_{M\rightarrow\...
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Property of Cesaro summable 0-1 sequences

Assume that $a_n$, $b_n$ and $c_n$ are 0-1 sequences such that $$ a=\lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N a_n, \, c=\lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N c_n, \, d=\lim_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{...
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Dominated convergence theorem for vairance and cesaro mean of random variables

I was wondering the following problem: If $X_n$ is a sequence of independent random variables, $|X_n|\leq b, (b>0)$ and $X_n$ converges to $X$ almost surely. Using dominated convergence theorem, ...
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If $a_n$ and $a_n b_n$ are Cesàro summable 0-1 sequences, is $b_n$ Cesàro summable as well?

My question is related to this one: Is the product of a Cesaro summable sequence of $0$s and $1$s Cesaro summable? Let $(a_n)$ and $(b_n)$ be infinite sequences of zeros and ones. Assume that $\lim_{...
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Finding $\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^p+3^p+…+(2n+1)^p}{n^{p+1}}$

I'm trying to solve the following problem: Find $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{1^p+3^p+\ldots+(2n+1)^p}{n^{p+1}}$$ What I've got so far: My idea is to use Stolz-Cesaro theorem, which implies that: $$ \...
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Understanding part of a proof for Stolz-Cesaro Theorem

I'm trying to understand a step from a proof of the Stolz-Cesaro Theorem. Let ${\left\{ {{b_n}} \right\}_{n \in {\Bbb N}}}$ is a positively strictly increasing unbounded sequence. If ${\left\{ {{a_n}...
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proof verification of $\frac{1}{n}\sum \sin nx$ having a limit

I have to prove that $b_n=\frac{1}{n}\sum\limits_{i=1}^n \sin ix$ has a limit. I'm using the result of an already solved problem which implies the following: $$\sum_{i=1}^n \sin ix=\frac{\sin{\frac{...
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1answer
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proving that if $lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=\infty$ then $lim_{n\to\infty}b_n=\infty$, where $b_n=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n{a_i}$.

I have to prove that if $lim_{n\to\infty}a_n=\infty$ then $lim_{n\to\infty}b_n=\infty$, where $b_n=\frac{1}{n}\sum_{i=1}^n{a_i}$. What I've got: Let $\epsilon > 0$. We know that $a_n\to \infty$, ...
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Are sequences with Cesaro mean a closed subset of $\ell_\infty$?

How can we show that the bounded sequences which are Cesaro summable, i.e., the sequences such that the limit $$\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{x_1+\dots+x_n}n$$ exists, form a closed subset of $\ell_\...
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Proving the converse to the Cesaro theorem under weak assumptions

I have previously asked a question to prove the converse of the Cesaro theorem under the assumption that $u_{n+1}-u_n=o(\frac{1}{n})$ . This time I have to do it under the assumption that $u_{n+1}-u_n=...
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1answer
146 views

Proving a converse of the Cesaro theorem under extra assumptions

I'm trying to prove that, given $(u_n)_n \in \mathbb{C}^\mathbb{N}$ verifying $ u_{n+1}-u_n =_{n} o(\frac{1}{n})$, the following holds: $$ \lim_{n\to\infty} \frac{u_1+...+u_n}{n} = a \in \mathbb{C} \...
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Summability Question

Today I was reading Cesaro Summability and Abel summability. I found that there exists a series which is Cesaro summable but do not converge in conventional way (the usual way...). Again there exists ...
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Limit of $n$-Cesaro summation as $n \to \infty$

I recently learned that a Cesaro summation extends the usual summation in the following way: Given a sequence $a_1, a_2, \ldots $ we construct the Cesaro sequence by defining $$\sigma_n = \frac{1}{n}\...
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Cesaro continiuity leads linearity

I need just a hint please. It seems that I have to prove that $f(x)=mx$ in which $m\in \mathbb{R}.$ But I couldn't handle it. Problem: We say that a sequence $x_{n}\; , n = 1, 2,\cdots ,$ ...
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Example of $(b_n)$ such that $\lim_{n\to\infty} {\frac1n}\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}b_i$ does not exists and $0\le b_n\le 1$

Find a ${{b_n}}$ $n\in\Bbb N$ and $0\le b_n\le 1$ such as the limit $$\lim_{n\to\infty} {\frac1n}\sum_{i=1}^{n-1}b_i$$ does not exist. I don't know how to deal with this problem, it seems to me that ...
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1answer
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convergence of sequence of averages the other way around

In a vector normed space, if $ \{x_n\} \longrightarrow x $ then $ z_n = \dfrac{x_1 + \cdots+x_n}{n} \longrightarrow x $ Is it true the other way arround too? meaning: if $ z_n = \dfrac{x_1 + \...
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Prove convergence of the sequence $(z_1+z_2+\cdots + z_n)/n$ of Cesaro means [duplicate]

Prove that if $\lim_{n \to \infty}z_{n}=A$ then: $$\lim_{n \to \infty}\frac{z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots + z_{n}}{n}=A$$ I was thinking spliting it in: $$(z_{1}+z_{2}+\cdots+z_{N-1})+(z_{N}+z_{N+1}+\cdots+z_{n}...
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multidimensional pointwise convergence of manipulated Fourier series - reference request

For a continuous complex-valued continuous function $f$ on the unit circle $\mathbb{T}$, we have that $f\ast K_n$ converges uniformly to $f$, where $K_n$ are the Fejér kernels defined by taking Césaro ...
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1answer
186 views

Prove that $a_n:=\sin(\log(n))$ isn't Cesaro summable

The Cesaro limit is defined to be $$\lim\limits_{N\to\infty}\frac{\sum\limits_{n=1}^Na_n}{N}.$$ On his latest blog post, Terence Tao mentions that this sequence isn't Cesaro summable. How does one ...
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Summarise with Cesaro summation [closed]

Lets consider series $A = \sum_{n=0}^\infty(-1)^n$. $A = 1 - 1 + 1 - 1 \dots$ Lets consider k-th term of series A. Move it to $2^kth$ position. So, and repeat it for every term in series. Obviously, ...
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1answer
243 views

Show a series is Cesaro summable.

I am given this series: $\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\cos(\frac{n\pi}{6})$ and asked if it converges and if it's Cesaro summable or not. I can easily show that this series diverges. However, I am unsure how ...
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1answer
82 views

Prove Cesàro mean using the weak law of large numbers

Is it possible to prove that the Cesàro mean of a converging sequence is the limit of the sequence through probabilities using the weak law of large numbers ? Has it ever been done ?
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251 views

Proofs with absolutely summable sequences

(I'm sorry if someone has already asked a similar question, I couldn't find anything from my search). The question is here. Let $l^1$ denote the space of all absolutely summable sequences, i.e., ...
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1answer
112 views

Question about Cesàro summation

Consider $$S_n = \sum_{i=0}^n a_i$$ and its Cesàro sums, defined as $$ C = \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac1n\sum_{k=0}^n S_k$$ Is it always true that $$ C = \lim_{n \to \infty} \frac1{L(n)}\sum_{k= n - L(n)}...
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1answer
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$\liminf_{N\to\infty}\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^Na_nb_n\ge\liminf_{N\to\infty}\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^Na_n\liminf_{N\to\infty}\frac{1}{N}\sum_{n=1}^Nb_n$?

Suppose $a_n$ and $b_n$ are uniformly bounded sequences of non-negative numbers. Is it true that $$ \liminf_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}^N a_n b_n \ge \liminf_{N\to\infty} \frac{1}{N} \sum_{n=1}...
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1answer
94 views

Applying Cesàro mean infinetely many times on 1+1+1+1… [closed]

It's well known that $\zeta(0)=\sum{\frac{1}{n^0}}=\sum{1}=-\frac{1}{2}$, so I know there is something wrong with extending the method Mathologer described here infinetely many times: Partial sums of ...
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1answer
352 views

Cesaro means of uniformly convergent sequence of functions also converges

Statement of the problem: Prove: If a sequence of complex functions $s_n$ on a set $X$ converges uniformly to a complex function $s$, then the sequence of Cesaro means $\sigma_N$ also converges ...
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Cesaro summability of this sequence

Consider the sequence $(0,0,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,1..)$, i.e the sequence of 2 zeros, followed by $2^2$ ones, followed by $2^3$ zeros, $2^4$ ones and so on. I know that the sequence of Cesaro ...