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Questions tagged [banach-spaces]

A Banach space is a complete normed vector space: A vector space equipped with a norm such that every Cauchy sequence converges.

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1answer
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Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional Banach space. Prove that every Hamel basis of X is uncountable.

Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional Banach space. Prove that every basis of $X$ is uncountable. Can anyone help how can I solve the above problem?
49
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4answers
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Space of bounded continuous functions is complete

I have lecture notes with the claim $(C_b(X), \|\cdot\|_\infty)$, the space of bounded continuous functions with the sup norm is complete. The lecturer then proved two things, (i) that $f(x) = \lim ...
59
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2answers
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The Duals of $l^\infty$ and $L^{\infty}$

Can we identify the dual space of $l^\infty$ with another "natural space"?. If the answer yes what about $L^\infty$. By the dual space I mean the space of all continuous linear functionals.
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2answers
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Cardinality of a Hamel basis of $\ell_1(\mathbb{R})$

What is the cardinality of a Hamel basis of $\ell_1(\mathbb R)$? Is it deducible in ZFC that it is seemingly continuum? Does it follow from this that each Banach space of density $\leqslant 2^{\...
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4answers
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Is it possible for a function to be in $L^p$ for only one $p$?

I'm wondering if it's possible for a function to be an $L^p$ space for only one value of $p \in [1,\infty)$ (on either a bounded domain or an unbounded domain). One can use interpolation to show that ...
22
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1answer
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Strong and weak convergence in $\ell^1$

Let $\ell^1$ be the space of absolutely summable real or complex sequences. Let us say that a sequence $(x_1, x_2, \ldots)$ of vectors in $\ell^1$ converges weakly to $x \in \ell^1$ if for every ...
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3answers
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A Banach space is reflexive if and only if its dual is reflexive

How to show that a Banach space $X$ is reflexive if and only if its dual $X'$ is reflexive?
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1answer
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Inequality between $\ell^p$-norms

Suppose that a sequence $x=(x_n)$ belongs both to $\ell^p$ and $\ell^q$ ($p,q>1$, $p\neq q$). Is there any inequality between $\|x\|_p$ and $\|x\|_q$. Can one $\ell^p$ be continuously embedded into ...
13
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1answer
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Nonnegative linear functionals over $l^\infty$

My purpose is a clarification of the role of the axiom of choice in constructing limits for bounded sequences. Namely, we want a linear functional of norm 1 defined on the space of all bounded complex ...
13
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2answers
7k views

$C([0, 1])$ is not complete with respect to the norm $\lVert f\rVert _1 = \int_0^1 \lvert f (x) \rvert \,dx$

Consider $C([0, 1])$, the linear space of continuous complex-valued functions on the interval $[0, 1]$, with the norm $$\displaystyle\lVert f\rVert_1 = \int_0^1 \lvert f(x)\rvert \,dx.$$ I have to ...
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5answers
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How to show that this set is compact in $\ell^2$

Let $(a_n)_{n}\in\ell^2:=\ell^2(\mathbb{R})$ be a fixed sequence. Consider the subspace $$C=\{(x_n)_{n}\in\ell^2 : |x_n|\le a_n\text{ for all }n\in\mathbb{N}\}.$$ According to the book [Dunford and ...
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3answers
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Connections between metrics, norms and scalar products (for understanding e.g. Banach and Hilbert spaces)

I am trying to understand the differences between $$ \begin{array}{|l|l|l|} \textbf{vector space} & \textbf{general} & \textbf{+ completeness}\\\hline \text{metric}& \text{metric space} &...
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2answers
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Example of a closed subspace of a Banach space which is not complemented?

In this post, all vector spaces are assumed to be real or complex. Let $(X, ||\cdot||)$ be a Banach space, $Y \subset X$ a closed subspace. $Y$ is called $\underline{\mathrm{complemented}}$, if there ...
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Complement of $c_{0}$ in $\ell^{\infty}$

How can I show that $c_{0}$ cannot be complemented in $\ell^{\infty}$? Complement in the following sense $$c_{0}+V = \ell^{\infty}$$ And the projections are continuous.
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Compact operator maps weakly convergent sequences into strongly convergent sequences

I found the following property of compact operators in a proof, and I can't prove it. Prove that if $T \in \mathcal{L}(E,F)$ is compact, and if $u_n \rightharpoonup u$ (the sequence converges ...
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1answer
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If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic

If $1\leq p < \infty$ then show that $L^p([0,1])$ and $\ell_p$ are not topologically isomorphic unless $p=2$. Maybe I would have to use the Rademacher's functions.
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4answers
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Fréchet differentiability from Gâteaux differentiability

Let $X$ be a Banach space and $\Omega \subset X$ be open. The functional $f$ has a Gâteaux derivative $g \in X'$ at $u \in \Omega$ if, $\forall h\in X,$ $$\lim_{t \rightarrow 0}[f(u+th)-f(u)- \langle ...
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2answers
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How do I prove the completeness of $\ell^p$?

Say $\{x_n\}$ is Cauchy in $\ell^p$ and $x$ is its pointwise limit. To argue that $x \in \ell^p$ would the following be correct: Let $\varepsilon > 0$ and let $N$ be s.t. $n,m > N$ $\Rightarrow$...
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1answer
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Weak-to-weak continuous operator which is not norm-continuous

Can one give a "relatively easy" example of a linear mapping $T\colon X\to X$ ($X$ a Banach space) which is a) weak-to-weak continuous b) weak*-to-weak* continuous ($X=Y^*$) but not norm-to-norm ...
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2answers
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Linear functional on a Banach space is discontinuous then its nullspace is dense.

I need to prove that: If a nonzero linear functional $f$ on a Banach Space $X$ is discontinuous then the nullspace $N_f$ is dense in $X$. To prove that $N_f$ is dense, it suffices to show that $\...
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1answer
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An application of Riesz' Lemma

How does one prove using Riesz' Lemma that an infinite dimensional subspace $Y$ of a Banach space $X$ contains a sequence $\{x_n:n\in \mathbb{N}\}$ in the unit ball of $Y$ such that $n \neq m$ implies ...
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2answers
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How to show that quotient space $X/Y$ is complete when $X$ is Banach space, and $Y$ is a closed subspace of $X$?

How to show that quotient space $X/Y$ is complete when $X$ is Banach space, and $Y$ is a closed subspace of $X$? Here's my attempt: Given a Cauchy sequence $\{q_n\}_{n \in \mathbb{N}}$ in $X/Y$, each ...
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2answers
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Prove that $X^\ast$ separable implies $X$ separable

Can someone tell me if I got the following right: Assume $X$ to be a normed vector space over $\mathbb{R}$. Prove that if the dual space $X^\ast$ is separable then $X$ is separable as well. I'm ...
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2answers
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Isometric Embedding of a separable Banach Space into $\ell^{\infty}$

The problem is: Let $X$ be a separable Banach space then there is an isometric embedding from $X$ to $\ell^{\infty}$. My efforts: I showed that there is an isometry from $X^*$ (topological dual) to ...
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1answer
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Show that $\liminf_{n\to \infty}x_{n}\le\alpha(x)\le\limsup_{n\to\infty}x_{n}$ for $x=(x_{n})$ in $\ell^{\infty}$

Question: Show that $\liminf_{n\to \infty}x_{n}\le\alpha(x)\le\limsup_{n\to\infty}x_{n}$ for $x=(x_{n})$ in $\ell^{\infty}$, where $\alpha$ is a bounded linear functional on $\ell^{\infty}$. I try ...
10
votes
1answer
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Equivalence of reflexive and weakly compact

In a normed space $X$ is there an equivalence between these two proposition? $1)$ $X$ is reflexive; $2)$ $B$, the unit ball of $X$, is weakly compact.
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2answers
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Is there an explicit isomorphism between $L^\infty[0,1]$ and $\ell^\infty$?

Is there an explicit isomorphism between $L^\infty[0,1]$ and $\ell^\infty$? In some sense, this is a follow-up to my answer to this question where the non-isomorphism between the spaces $L^r$ and $\...
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1answer
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Prove that $C^1([a,b])$ with the $C^1$- norm is a Banach Space

Consider the space of continuously differentiable functions, $$C^1([a,b]) = \{f:[a,b]\rightarrow \mathbb{R}|f,f' \text{are continuous}\}$$ with the $C^1$-norm $$||f|| = \sup_{a\leq x\leq b}|f(x)|+\...
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votes
3answers
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Norm for pointwise convergence

Does there exist a norm on the space of all real-valued functions on the real line (or on an open set? a compact set?) such that convergence in this norm is equivalent to pointwise convergence?
18
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1answer
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Are the coordinate functions of a Hamel basis for an infinite dimensional Banach space discontinuous?

The question is in the title really, but I suppose I could at least fix some notation here. Let $X$ be an infinite dimensional Banach space - over the reals for the sake of concreteness. Use choice ...
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1answer
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A vector without minimum norm in a Banach space

Question: Let $E = C[0, 1]$, with sup norm. Let $K$ consist of all $f$ in $E$ such that $$\int_{0}^{\frac{1}{2}}f(s)ds-\int_{\frac{1}{2}}^{1}f(s)ds=1$$ Prove that $K$ is a closed convex subset of $E$ ...
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1answer
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A Hamel basis for $\ell^p$?

I am looking for an explicit example for a Hamel basis for $\ell^{p}$?. As we know that for a Banach space a Hamel basis has either finite or uncountably infinite cardinality and for such a basis one ...
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2answers
767 views

At most finitely many (Hamel) coordinate functionals are continuous - different proof

If $X$ is a vector space over $\mathbb R$ and $B=\{x_i; i\in I\}$ is a Hamel basis for $X$, then for each $i\in I$ we have a linear functional $a_i(x)$ which assigns to $x$ the $i$-th coordinate, i.e....
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1answer
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Every separable Banach space is isomorphic to $\ell_1/A$ for some closed $A\subset \ell_1$

How to prove the following mind-blowing fact? Let $X$ be a separable Banach space and let $\ell_1$ be the space of all absolutely summable scalar sequences. Then there exists such closed subspace $...
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1answer
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Are these two Banach spaces isometrically isomorphic?

Let $c$ denote the space of convergent sequences in $\mathbb C$, $c_0\subset c$ be the space of all sequences that converge to $0$. Given the uniform metric, both of them can be made into Banach ...
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5answers
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Dual of $l^\infty$ is not $l^1$

I know that the dual space of $l^\infty$ is not $l^1$, but I didn't understand the reason. Could you give me a example of an $x \in l^1$ such that if $y \in l^\infty$, then $ f_x(y) = \sum_{k=1}^{\...
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2answers
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How slow/fast can $L^p$ norm grow?

This is actually an exercise in Rudin's Real and Complex Analysis, $L^p$ spaces chapter. Could anyone help me out? Thanks in advance. Motivation: It's well known that if we have a function $f$ which ...
8
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1answer
808 views

Is the weak topology sequential on some infinite-dimensional Banach space?

Recall that a topological space is sequential, iff every sequentially closed set is already closed. Is there an infinite-dimensional Banach space on which the weak topology is sequential? I ...
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1answer
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Question about Fredholm operator

$X,Y$ are Banach spaces and $A\in B(X,Y)$ is a Fredholm operator (that is, the dimensions of ker($A$) and coker($A$) are both finite), then are closed linear subspaces ker($A$) and Im($A$) ...
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1answer
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Nested sequences of balls in a Banach space

This seems to be a fairly easy question but I'm looking for new points of view on it and was wondering if anyone might be able to help. (By the way- this question does come from home-work, but I've ...
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4answers
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Example of different topologies with same convergent sequences

It's well known that for metric spaces the following is true Let $ X $ be a space with two different metrics $ d_1,d_2$ such that the two topological spaces $ (X,d_1),(X,d_2) $ have the same ...
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2answers
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Proof of Pitt's theorem

I'm reading the book Topics in Banach Space Theory by Albiac F. Kalton N. J. I got stuck at the proof of Pitt's theorem. In the second paragraphs authors tries to prove ad absurdum that for weakly ...
18
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3answers
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Compactness of a bounded operator $T\colon c_0 \to \ell^1$

Pitt Theorem says that any bounded linear operator $T\colon \ell^r \to \ell^p$, $1 \leq p < r < \infty$, or $T\colon c_0 \to \ell^p$ is compact. I know how to prove this in case $\ell^r \to \...
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4answers
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Non-closed subspace of a Banach space

Let $V$ be a Banach space. Can you give me an example of a subspace $W\subset V$ (sub-vectorspace) that is not closed? Can't find an example of that yet. Thanks!
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2answers
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If every absolutely convergent series is convergent then $X$ is Banach

Show that A Normed Linear Space $X$ is a Banach Space iff every absolutely convergent series is convergent. My try: Let $X$ is a Banach Space .Let $\sum x_n$ be an absolutely convergent series ....
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1answer
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$\ell_\infty$ is a Grothendieck space

The problem I am considering stated formally is this: Show that if a sequence in $\ell_\infty^*$ is weak*-convergent, then it is also weakly convergent. We may reduce this to the case where the ...
15
votes
2answers
2k views

Closure of the invertible operators on a Banach space

Let $E$ be a Banach space, $\mathcal B(E)$ the Banach space of linear bounded operators and $\mathcal I$ the set of all invertible linear bounded operators from $E$ to $E$. We know that $\mathcal I$ ...
9
votes
1answer
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Inclusion of $L^p$ spaces

Let $X \subset L^1(\mathbb{R})$ a closed linear subspace satisfying \begin{align} X\subset \bigcup_{p>1} L^p(\mathbb{R})\end{align} Show that $X\subset L^{p_0}(\mathbb{R})$ for some $p_0>1.$ ...
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0answers
132 views

Is there a notion of a continuous basis of a Banach space?

If $X$ is a Banach space, then a Hamel basis of $X$ is a subset $B$ of $X$ such that every element of $X$ can be written uniquely as a linear combination of elements of $B$. And a Schauder basis of $...
3
votes
1answer
432 views

If space of bounded operators L(V,W) is Banach, V nonzero, then W is Banach (note direction of implication)

Let $V,W$ be normed vector spaces, and $L(V,W)$ be the space of bounded linear operators. Usually I would only see the statement "If $W$ is Banach, then $L(V,W)$ is Banach.". But Wikipedia writes that ...