# Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

For questions about artificial intelligence, the intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.

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### Hough voting or RANSAC voting, which strategy is better for pixel-wise object's center location estimation?

If we know all the pixels of the object in an image and draw a unit vector from all the known pixels of the object body towards the center direction of the object, and then apply some voting ...
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### How do I detect which of N objects appears in an image, and classify it's "state"? [closed]

Suppose I have a finite number of N objects O. In every image I, strictly 1 of these objects exist. And each object is in 1 of M states S. You can think of Q as a set R positions P, where each ...
1 vote
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### Does "Iterative Policy Evaluation" Guarantee the "Optimal Policy"?

I am reading about "Iterative Policy Evaluation" algorithm in the context of Reinforcement Learning (http://incompleteideas.net/book/ebook/node41.html). If I have understood this correctly - ...
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### alpha beta pruning for multiple players

I have just finished implementing the min-max algorithm for a three-player game. I currently want to implement alpha-beta pruning but I, unfortunately, am unable to find any clear methods on how to ...
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### Converting First-Order Logic to CNF

I am having a lot of trouble using the rules of converting First-Order Logic to CNF. I have this statement: ∀x∃y : ([P(x, y) → Q(y, x)] ∧ [Q(y, x) → S(x, y)]) → ∃x∀y : [P(x, y) → S(x, y)] After ...
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### Numerical Experiments: Definition and Examples

Could anybody define the "Numerical Experiment" and provide some examples? Does solving a problem using AI/Machine learning such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) or heuristic algorithm ...
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### Book recommendation for introduction to symbolic logic motivated by AI

I am a second year mathematics undergraduate that has taken real and complex analysis, linear algebra, group and ring theory, general topology, probability theory and statistical inference. I am ...
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### Monte Carlo Tree Search

You are to manually run the MCTS algo- rithm for the navigation example covered in class for 10 iterations. For this, you will need simulation results for nodes at tree depth up to 2, which is ...
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### multiple losses with L-BFGS in torch

I am using the torch iimplementation of L-BFGS to minimize a loss function, which is given as the sum of $n$ loss function loss = loss_1 + loss_2 + ... + loss_n Computing each of the losses loss_i is ...
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### Heuristic search problem in a directed tree

I am learning about heuristic search algorithms and am trying to find a non-trivial admissible heuristic for the problem linked below. Problem Note: Let V(n) be the value in node n. There are 3 ...
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### How to get a maximum and minimum score of dot product similarity metric?

I use this library (https://www.sbert.net/examples/applications/semantic-search/README.html) to perform an information retrieval task. There are two options for the similarity function: dot product ...
58 views

### Time Consumption by a super computer to solve a puzzle

I have a 4x3 cubic picture puzzle with 6 correct answers. Each piece in an inch^3 (l=b=h=inch=2.5cm). I can figure out the arrangements of this puzzle i.e. Each block in the puzzle can move in 24 ways ...
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I am a beginner in AI. In a paper by McDermott (titled "A critique of pure reason") I found the following passage: "A goal containing a variable is interpreted as a request to find ...
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### Modelling a problem in Graph Theory language

I am trying to model the following problem that I found in the AI field in graph theory language, but I have limited experience in graphs. We consider a network of devices. If two devices are close ...
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### Critic Loss in PPO

TL,DR: How precisely is the critic loss in PPO defined? I am trying to understand the PPO algorithm so that I can implement it. Now I'm somewhat confused when it comes to the critic loss. According to ...
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### How do I get $P(A|C,!B)$ with the following probability distributions?

I have the following probability distributions table: I know that $P(B)=0.6$ and that: A may or may not have B Some A have C How do I get $P(A|C,!B)$? I built the following baysiean network: I ...
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### min max algorithm in Artificial Intelligence

How to understand the meaning of the image in Artificial Intelligence book in chapter 5?
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### How can you find a 3-digit number "ABC", such that (ABC)/N = AxBxC ? Here, N=4. [closed]

How can you find a 3-digit number "ABC", such that (ABC)/N = AxBxC ? Here, N=4. Like, if abc/7= axbxc, answer is 735
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### Uniform Cost Search - 2 paths to the goal

I'm working through a rather peculiar UCS problem: Assume the start node is A, and the goal node is G. There are 2 paths from the start to the goal - both through E. I get stuck here: When I expand ...
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### n queen problems state space is at least 3√n!?

Im at the beginning of my ai journey. Im reading the book and Im stuck at the problem. Consider the n queens problem using the efficient incremental formulation. Explain why state space size is at ...
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### Which standard deviation for model averaging?

I hope math stack exchange is the right place for this question, even though it comes from an AI point of view. Say I have a machine learning model and for robustness of results, I initialize it with ...
23 views

### ReLU on a feature map

I have produced a feature map, that is 5x3, of a input layer which was 5x7. I have obtained "2:s" and "3:s" and also one "1". The aim is now to use the ReLU neuron on ...
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1 vote
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### Help with Resolution Refutation Problem

I'm trying to convert Solve a Resolution Refutation problem. The problem states: Knowledge Base is ∀𝑥𝑦 𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦). Prove using resolution-refutation that ∀𝑥𝑦 𝐹(𝑦, 𝑥). Note: β = F(y, x) This ...
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### water jug problem [closed]

The original version of water jug problem is that we have two empty jugs and an infinite source of water and the goal is to find a way to reach a state so that one of the jugs contains a specific ...
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### Gödel's Incompleness Theorems and the "Minds vs. Machines" conundrum

As a part of my self-learning about Gödel's Incompleness Theorems, I try to dive a little bit into their different interpretations and (possible) philosophical implications. One that immediately ...
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### Removing Implication in the Conversion of WFF to Clausal Form

I understand the conversion algorithm, my concern is regarding the first step of 'Removing Implication'. Example: In the following figure when one removes implication, the negation comes before ...
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### Mean of unormalized Gamma distribution

If $X$ follows a gamma distribution with parameters $\alpha$ and $\beta$ then: $p(x|\alpha,\beta) = \frac{\beta^{\alpha}x^{\alpha-1}e^{-\beta x}}{\Gamma(\alpha)}$ with $\Gamma(\alpha) = (\alpha - 1)!$...
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### Introduction to AI

In the book Introduction to artificial intelligence Ertel asks this question (exercise 1.5(a)): Why is a deterministic agent with memory not a function from the set of all inputs to the set of all ...
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### Saying either or both in first-order predicate logic?

I have a statement along the gist of "Each member of A is either Y, Z, or both" Would the appropriate way to write this using first-order logic be: ∀x (A(x) → (Y(x) ∨ Z(x))) Would it suffice ...
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### Ways to write CNF for an implication with disjunction?

I have the following statement before it's converted to CNF: p → (s ∨ q). When I initially convert this to a CNF, I get the following: ¬p ∨ (s ∨ q). I'm wondering if I could use laws of associativity ...
I'm learning about propositional logic and converting statements to conjunctive normal form. If I have a statement such as $t \leftrightarrow q$, a biconditional statement, and I apply apply ...