Questions tagged [artificial-intelligence]

For questions about artificial intelligence, the intelligence of machines and robots and the branch of computer science that aims to create it.

Filter by
Sorted by
Tagged with
-1 votes
0 answers
8 views

Hough voting or RANSAC voting, which strategy is better for pixel-wise object's center location estimation?

If we know all the pixels of the object in an image and draw a unit vector from all the known pixels of the object body towards the center direction of the object, and then apply some voting ...
user avatar
-1 votes
0 answers
20 views

How do I detect which of N objects appears in an image, and classify it's "state"? [closed]

Suppose I have a finite number of N objects O. In every image I, strictly 1 of these objects exist. And each object is in 1 of M states S. You can think of Q as a set R positions P, where each ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
38 views

Does "Iterative Policy Evaluation" Guarantee the "Optimal Policy"?

I am reading about "Iterative Policy Evaluation" algorithm in the context of Reinforcement Learning (http://incompleteideas.net/book/ebook/node41.html). If I have understood this correctly - ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
8 views

alpha beta pruning for multiple players

I have just finished implementing the min-max algorithm for a three-player game. I currently want to implement alpha-beta pruning but I, unfortunately, am unable to find any clear methods on how to ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
24 views

Converting First-Order Logic to CNF

I am having a lot of trouble using the rules of converting First-Order Logic to CNF. I have this statement: ∀x∃y : ([P(x, y) → Q(y, x)] ∧ [Q(y, x) → S(x, y)]) → ∃x∀y : [P(x, y) → S(x, y)] After ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
33 views

Numerical Experiments: Definition and Examples

Could anybody define the "Numerical Experiment" and provide some examples? Does solving a problem using AI/Machine learning such as Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) or heuristic algorithm ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
27 views

Book recommendation for introduction to symbolic logic motivated by AI

I am a second year mathematics undergraduate that has taken real and complex analysis, linear algebra, group and ring theory, general topology, probability theory and statistical inference. I am ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
80 views

Monte Carlo Tree Search

You are to manually run the MCTS algo- rithm for the navigation example covered in class for 10 iterations. For this, you will need simulation results for nodes at tree depth up to 2, which is ...
user avatar
  • 23
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

multiple losses with L-BFGS in torch

I am using the torch iimplementation of L-BFGS to minimize a loss function, which is given as the sum of $n$ loss function loss = loss_1 + loss_2 + ... + loss_n Computing each of the losses loss_i is ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
4 views

Heuristic search problem in a directed tree

I am learning about heuristic search algorithms and am trying to find a non-trivial admissible heuristic for the problem linked below. Problem Note: Let V(n) be the value in node n. There are 3 ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
53 views

How to get a maximum and minimum score of dot product similarity metric?

I use this library (https://www.sbert.net/examples/applications/semantic-search/README.html) to perform an information retrieval task. There are two options for the similarity function: dot product ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
58 views

Time Consumption by a super computer to solve a puzzle

I have a 4x3 cubic picture puzzle with 6 correct answers. Each piece in an inch^3 (l=b=h=inch=2.5cm). I can figure out the arrangements of this puzzle i.e. Each block in the puzzle can move in 24 ways ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
59 views

McDermott about Skolemization

I am a beginner in AI. In a paper by McDermott (titled "A critique of pure reason") I found the following passage: "A goal containing a variable is interpreted as a request to find ...
user avatar
  • 73
0 votes
1 answer
52 views

Modelling a problem in Graph Theory language

I am trying to model the following problem that I found in the AI field in graph theory language, but I have limited experience in graphs. We consider a network of devices. If two devices are close ...
user avatar
  • 307
0 votes
1 answer
108 views

Critic Loss in PPO

TL,DR: How precisely is the critic loss in PPO defined? I am trying to understand the PPO algorithm so that I can implement it. Now I'm somewhat confused when it comes to the critic loss. According to ...
user avatar
  • 109
0 votes
0 answers
17 views

How do I get $P(A|C,!B)$ with the following probability distributions?

I have the following probability distributions table: I know that $P(B)=0.6$ and that: A may or may not have B Some A have C How do I get $P(A|C,!B)$? I built the following baysiean network: I ...
user avatar
  • 19
0 votes
1 answer
29 views

min max algorithm in Artificial Intelligence

How to understand the meaning of the image in Artificial Intelligence book in chapter 5?
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
72 views

How can you find a 3-digit number "ABC", such that (ABC)/N = AxBxC ? Here, N=4. [closed]

How can you find a 3-digit number "ABC", such that (ABC)/N = AxBxC ? Here, N=4. Like, if abc/7= axbxc, answer is 735
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
10 views

Uniform Cost Search - 2 paths to the goal

I'm working through a rather peculiar UCS problem: Assume the start node is A, and the goal node is G. There are 2 paths from the start to the goal - both through E. I get stuck here: When I expand ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
45 views

n queen problems state space is at least 3√n!?

Im at the beginning of my ai journey. Im reading the book and Im stuck at the problem. Consider the n queens problem using the efficient incremental formulation. Explain why state space size is at ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
14 views

Find optimal Vector for a dataset equation problem

Is there an algorithm or an efficient way to solve the following equation? $S= \frac{ \begin{bmatrix} R_{1} & . & . & R_{n}\\ \end{bmatrix} \begin{bmatrix} P_{1}\\ . \\ . \\ P_{n}\\ \end{...
user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
0 answers
19 views

How to derive Slime Mould Equations

As shown in https://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/Slime_Mould_Algorithm, we have the Slime Mould equations for Approach food and Wrap food. I do not know how to derive these equations. Please help me or ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
15 views

Is vector quantization belonging to the extention of K-means clustering

In unsupervised learning, vector quantization belongs to the extension of K-means clustering? since K-means tries to develop clusters with corresponding chose optimized centers to represent and find ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
97 views

Reference: A rigorous mathematical approach to Deep Learning

I am searching for any reference that has a mathematical (and/or theoretical physics) rigorious approach to key principles in deep learning. while most books that I have came across with are heavily ...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
21 views

Vapnik-Chervonenkis-dimension of a set of specific functions

Good evening, I'm struggling with calculating a few things in a task: Given: $\mathbb{C}=\{f_{a,b} :\mathbb{R} ^2 \to \{0,1\}|a,b \in \mathbb{R}\}$, where $f_{a,b}(x,y) = a\cdot (x^2 + y^2) - b$. Let $...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
32 views

Which standard deviation for model averaging?

I hope math stack exchange is the right place for this question, even though it comes from an AI point of view. Say I have a machine learning model and for robustness of results, I initialize it with ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
23 views

ReLU on a feature map

I have produced a feature map, that is 5x3, of a input layer which was 5x7. I have obtained "2:s" and "3:s" and also one "1". The aim is now to use the ReLU neuron on ...
user avatar
  • 25
1 vote
0 answers
91 views

Help with Resolution Refutation Problem

I'm trying to convert Solve a Resolution Refutation problem. The problem states: Knowledge Base is ∀𝑥𝑦 𝐹(𝑥, 𝑦). Prove using resolution-refutation that ∀𝑥𝑦 𝐹(𝑦, 𝑥). Note: β = F(y, x) This ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
59 views

water jug problem [closed]

The original version of water jug problem is that we have two empty jugs and an infinite source of water and the goal is to find a way to reach a state so that one of the jugs contains a specific ...
user avatar
  • 1
4 votes
1 answer
139 views

Gödel's Incompleness Theorems and the "Minds vs. Machines" conundrum

As a part of my self-learning about Gödel's Incompleness Theorems, I try to dive a little bit into their different interpretations and (possible) philosophical implications. One that immediately ...
user avatar
  • 3,244
0 votes
1 answer
70 views

Removing Implication in the Conversion of WFF to Clausal Form

I understand the conversion algorithm, my concern is regarding the first step of 'Removing Implication'. Example: In the following figure when one removes implication, the negation comes before ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
46 views

Solve this by converting sentences to clausal form? [closed]

If: $E\land R \implies B$ $E\implies R\lor P\lor L$ $K\implies B$ $\lnot(L\land B)$ $P\implies \lnot K$ Which of the following can't be deducted? $E\land P$ $K \land E \implies R$ $L \land P \implies\...
user avatar
  • 9
3 votes
1 answer
86 views

Can I interpret $\models$ as $\implies$ while proving logical expressions using different techniques?

In the book by Artificial Intelligence by Norvig and Russel, I came across following problem: Prove if correct: $(A ∧ B) \models (A ⇔ B).$ I quickly interpreted $\models$ as $\implies$ and tried to ...
user avatar
  • 1,823
0 votes
1 answer
198 views

Does empty set entails everything?

I am new to propositional logic, and I am trying to figure out whether the below statement is correct: [a |= c] or [ b |= c] → [a^b |= c] First of all, it is ...
user avatar
  • 127
0 votes
1 answer
125 views

Determining Independence in Bayesian Network

Consider the Bayesian Network Structure Below, decide whether the statements are true or false. b) $G \perp \!\!\! \perp A$ (G is independent of A) c) $E \perp \!\!\! \perp H | \{D,G\}$ (E and H are ...
user avatar
  • 821
0 votes
1 answer
65 views

You know the probability that an object is dirty. An unreliable sensor tells you its true state. What is the new probability that the object is dirty?

I have encountered a statistics related problem for an AI project that I don't know how to solve, but I'm also nearly statistically illiterate so I'm not sure where to look. Hoping I can get a tip ...
user avatar
  • 3
1 vote
0 answers
48 views

Why does k-means have more bias than spectral clustering and GMM?

I ran into a 2019-Entrance Exam question as follows: Which of the following algorithm has the higher bias? GMM GMM (identity covariance matrix) spectral clustering k-means The answer mentioned is (...
user avatar
0 votes
0 answers
126 views

T-algebra and a matrix paradigm over the algebra

We established a novel semisimple commutative algebra called t-algebra, which is backward-compatible to the field of complex numbers. Many notions of complex numbers and matrices are generalized. The ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
59 views

Is this textbook's combinatorial reasoning for $n \times n! / (b!(n - b)!)$ incorrect?

I recently asked this question on cs.stackexchange. I am currently studying the textbook Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach, 4th Edition, by Russell and Norvig. Chapter 3 Solving Problems by ...
user avatar
  • 4,066
0 votes
0 answers
37 views

Updating probability distribution for decision making in game AI.

I'm programming an AI simulation where a car is randomly driving around a area. Within this area there are 5 repair shops. While driving, the car get's damaged (1% for every step). Once the damage of ...
user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
28 views

Using Bayesian Networks to solve this localization problem?

I'm reading this paper, which I'll summarize here: Let a sensor network (in this case, a network of radio receivers) consist of $N$ sensor nodes at locations $S = \{ S_1 \cdots S_N\}$. Let $S_i^x$ ...
user avatar
  • 1,309
0 votes
0 answers
34 views

Non continuous Fuzzy Set

I stuck in this question for a few hours now. Can anyone help me? $ A ̃ $ is a non continuous fuzzy set and is defined by: $ A ̃ = \{0.6/x_1 +0.5/x_2 + 1/x_3 + 0.75/x_4 + 0.7/x_5 + 0.8/x_6 + 1/...
user avatar
  • 33
0 votes
3 answers
45 views

Mean of unormalized Gamma distribution

If $X$ follows a gamma distribution with parameters $\alpha$ and $\beta$ then: $ p(x|\alpha,\beta) = \frac{\beta^{\alpha}x^{\alpha-1}e^{-\beta x}}{\Gamma(\alpha)}$ with $\Gamma(\alpha) = (\alpha - 1)!$...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
303 views

Introduction to AI

In the book Introduction to artificial intelligence Ertel asks this question (exercise 1.5(a)): Why is a deterministic agent with memory not a function from the set of all inputs to the set of all ...
user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
130 views

Saying either or both in first-order predicate logic?

I have a statement along the gist of "Each member of A is either Y, Z, or both" Would the appropriate way to write this using first-order logic be: ∀x (A(x) → (Y(x) ∨ Z(x))) Would it suffice ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
497 views

Ways to write CNF for an implication with disjunction?

I have the following statement before it's converted to CNF: p → (s ∨ q). When I initially convert this to a CNF, I get the following: ¬p ∨ (s ∨ q). I'm wondering if I could use laws of associativity ...
user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
267 views

Biconditional elimination and implication elimination rules canceling statement out?

I'm learning about propositional logic and converting statements to conjunctive normal form. If I have a statement such as $t \leftrightarrow q$, a biconditional statement, and I apply apply ...
user avatar
1 vote
4 answers
122 views

Why $A \rightarrow B \Leftrightarrow \textrm{( A is False or B is True )} $

I am reading a book about Artificial intelligence and Knowledge representation and there is a logic formula that I cannot explain Why $A \rightarrow B \Leftrightarrow \textrm{( A is False or B is True ...
user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
147 views

Calculate a formula using back-propagation algorithm

English isn't my first language, so I'm sorry if I am unable to clearly describe the problem. Recently I have encountered a question in my artificial intelligence course that I am unable to wrap my ...
user avatar
1 vote
0 answers
39 views

What is the parameter update rule for neural networks

I am currently taking a machine learning course and had a question about the update rule for $\theta$ in neural networks. In the discussion of previous learning algorithms, the professor defined: $$\...
user avatar

1
2 3 4 5