# Questions tagged [approximation-theory]

Approximation theory is concerned with how functions can best be approximated with simpler functions, and with quantitatively characterizing the errors introduced thereby.

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### How to expand $b\int_0^\infty \operatorname{sech}^2\big(b\cdot f(x)\big)\,dx$ for large $b$?

Suppose $f(x)$ has a single zero in $(0,\infty)$ at $x=c$ and has a Taylor expansion about this point with some nonzero radius of convergence $0<R\leq\infty$. For concreteness, I'm working with the ...
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### Wavelet expansions

I'm looking into wavelets to approximate a known square-integrable function $$f(x) = \sum_{j,k} a_{j,k} \times 2^{j/2}\psi(2^j x - k), \qquad a_{j,k}=2^{j/2}\int f(x) \psi(2^jx-k)dx$$ and I'm happy ...
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### Polynomials can approximate the identity (proof)

From Terence Tao's Analysis II: I'm having problems with 14.8.2.(c), since it seems like the choice of $N$ depends on $c$ (and vice versa). The only proof I have relies on the convergence of the ...
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### Approximation theorems and sketches of their proofs

I would like to collect (with support of users here) approximation theorems and sketches of their proofs. Each answer would give one approximation theorem and sketch of a proof. Any other proof of ...
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### Is there some sense in which Fourier series approximations converge faster than Taylor series approximations?

Suppose I have a periodic function $f(x)$ with period 1 that I wish to approximate. Is there any sense in which if I compute the first $k$ sine and cosine terms of the Fourier series, I will get less ...
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### Is there a class of functions that have a cyclical or constant derivative?

I'm working on approximating functions in A.I., and I noticed that everyday functions seem to, at some point, have either a cyclical, or constant, derivative. For example, a straight line has a ...
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### Can we perturb a map $\mathbb{R}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ with point singularity to be of high rank?

This is a special case of this question. Let $\mathbb{D}^n$ be the closed $n$-dimensional unit ball, and let $f:\mathbb{D}^n \to \mathbb{R}^n$ be smooth. Suppose that $df$ is invertible outside a ...
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### Can we approximate elements in $L^2$ via smooth maps while preserving a pointwise constraint on the derivatives?

Let $\mathbb{D}^n \subseteq \mathbb{R}^n$ be the closed $n$-dimensional unit ball. Suppose we are given an open connected* subset $U \subseteq \mathbb{D}^n$ of full measure in $\mathbb{D}^n$, and a ...
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### Do all convergent sub-sequences of a sequence in a compact set $\mathcal K$ converge to the same element in $\mathcal K$?

I came upon this when trying to understand the proof to "Theorem on Existence of Best Approximations in a Metric Space" as given by Cheney (1981). Let $\mathcal K$ denote a compact set in a metric ...
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### Can we approximate a smooth function by a continuous and nowhere smooth function uniformly?

From Stone-Weierstrass approximation theorem we know that we can approximate a continuous(no matter differentiable or not) by a polynomial function uniformly within a compact interval domain. ...
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### Best approximation of a real number with two functions

There's two functions, called $F(x)$ and $G(x)$, where $F(x)>x,1<G(x) < x$ ,$F'(x)>0, G'(x)>0$ on $(2,\infty)$, and $F(x),G(x)\in(2,\infty)$. Given $x, y\in (2,\infty)$, and now I want ...
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### Approximating a Discrete Function with a Polynomial

Consider a discrete function $f : \{x_1,\dots,x_n\} \to [a,b]$ that, for some $\omega>0$, satisfies $$\max_i |f_i-f_{i-1}| \le \omega. \tag1$$ Let $q$ be the polynomial of order $m<n$ that, ...
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### Monotonicity of function involving ratios of modified Bessel function of first kind

I am a scientist who is trying to come up with some analytic solutions for a system that I only have approximate answers to and I have run into the problem of proving that the following function is ...
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### $||\phi-\phi_\epsilon||_{L^1(\mu)}<\epsilon$ and $||\phi-\tilde{\phi}_\epsilon ||_{L^1(v\mu)}<\epsilon$, then $\tilde{\phi}_\epsilon= \phi_\epsilon$?

Let $\Omega\subset \mathbb{R}^n$ be an open and bounded set. Let $\mu:\mathcal{B}(\Omega)\to [0,+\infty)$ a bounded Radon measure and let $\varphi, \, v \in L^1(\Omega,\,\mu)$, $v\geq 0$. Then $v\mu$ ...
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### “Taylor series” is to “Volterra series” as “Padé approximant” is to _________?

Padé approximants are often better than Taylor series at representing a function. Given a Taylor series, one can use Wynn's epsilon algorithm to easily produce the Padé approximants to it. Volterra ...
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### How close can $\sum_{k=1}^n \sqrt{k}$ be to an integer?

How close can $S(n) = \sum_{k=1}^n \sqrt{k}$ be to an integer? Is there some $f(n)$ such that, if $I(x)$ is the closest integer to $x$, then $|S(n)-I(S(n))|\ge f(n)$ (such as $1/n^2$, $e^{-n}$, ...). ...
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### modulus of continuity in matlab

How can we apply modulus of continuity and modulus of smoothness in matlab for any function?? These are two rules of modulus of continuity enter image description here
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### Convergence speed of discrete approximation

Here I asked the question about approximating the function $g(x) := \mathbb{E}(f(x,Y))$, where $x \in R$ and $Y$ is a random variable. If you follow the link you will see that $g(x)$ can be ...
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### Limits of the wave equation with piecewise constant propagation speed

Consider a wave equation $$\frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial t^2} = c(x)^2 \frac{\partial^2 u}{\partial x^2} \tag{1}$$ In frequency domain this becomes an ODE: -\omega^2 u = c(x)^2 \frac{\partial^2 u}{\...
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### Rigorous rationale for the Pade Approximant?

I recently asked a Question for which the only Answer I got was a recommendation to punt and use the Pade Approximant. This is the first time I recalling seeing this, and intuitively it seems like ...
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### Closed set that is not $\rm proximinal$ set

Every $proximinal$ set must be $closed$, but the opposite is not true. I'm looking for such an example. A $closed$ set that is not $proximinal$ set ?
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### Jaggedness of the boundary of the $\epsilon$ neighborhood of a set

Let $X$ be a simply connected set in $\mathbb{C}$. Of course $X$ can be quite jagged and nasty. Let $\epsilon>0$ be given, and define $C(X;\epsilon)=\{z\in\mathbb{C}:\min(|z-w|:w\in X)=\epsilon\}$...
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### What is the “right” way of approximating random variables with other random variables?

It is well-known that one can construct a Hilbert space of zero mean, finite variance random variables such that every random variable of this type $X$ can be represented as a linear combination of a ...
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### Are of Polynomials of Continuous functions complete?

The Stone-Weierstrass Theorem guarantees that every continuous function defined on a closed interval [a,b] can be approximated as closely as desired by a polynomial. I'm curious in polynomials of ...
We are given a continuous function $g: A \to B$, where $A, B$ are compact subsets of $\mathbb{R}$. We define a function $f(x) := g(b_1x)+g(b_2x)+...+ g(b_mx)$, where $b_i < 1$ and $b_ix$ is a ...
I have got a function $f$ which maps from one compact space to another. Function $f$ is smooth. I want to approximate it with some simple functions (e.g polynomials). Is there any theory that gives ...