I am struggling understanding this finding. Can somebody explain intuitively why randomly drawn high-dimensional vectors will tend to be mutually orthogonal? I realize that intuition in high dimensions might be too much to ask for, still, an explanation without having to integrate over several pages of symbols would be preferred.

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    $\begingroup$ (A) what is the source for this (B) what do you know so far? $\endgroup$ – Will Jagy Oct 28 '14 at 21:07
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    $\begingroup$ Others are using more rigour, but I think it simply as follows. By rotational symmetry of the distribution you might as well look at the inner product of a random vector and $(1,0,0,\ldots,0)$. That inner product is zero-mean, but its variance will be $1/n$. So when $n$ is in the hundreds, you need quite a few SDs off the mean to have a significant inner product (for a suitable value of "significant"). $\endgroup$ – Jyrki Lahtonen Oct 28 '14 at 22:03
  • $\begingroup$ @JyrkiLahtonen I will edit my answer to incorporate this line of reasoning explicitly. $\endgroup$ – Jonas Dahlbæk Oct 29 '14 at 8:33
  • $\begingroup$ @user161825: I had already upvoted your answer among others :-) $\endgroup$ – Jyrki Lahtonen Oct 29 '14 at 11:07
  • $\begingroup$ @JyrkiLahtonen thank you - this is very helpful. $\endgroup$ – b87lar Oct 29 '14 at 14:56

A random uniform unit vector is $X/\|X\|$ where $X$ is standard normal, thus the scalar product of two independent unit vectors $U$ and $V$ is $\langle U,V\rangle=\langle X,Y\rangle/(\|X\|\cdot\|Y\|)$ where $X$ and $Y$ are independent and standard normal. When $n\to\infty$, by the law of large numbers, $\|X\|/\sqrt{n}\to1$ almost surely and $\|Y\|/\sqrt{n}\to1$ almost surely, and by the central limit theorem, $\langle X,Y\rangle/\sqrt{n}$ converges in distribution to a standard one-dimensional normal random variable $Z$.

Thus, $\sqrt{n}\cdot\langle U,V\rangle\to Z$ in distribution, in particular, for every $\varepsilon\gt0$, $P(|\langle U,V\rangle|\geqslant\varepsilon)\to0$. In this sense, when $n\to\infty$, the probability that $U$ and $V$ are nearly orthogonal goes to $1$.

Likewise, $k$ independent uniform unit vectors are nearly orthogonal with very high probability when $n\to\infty$, for every fixed $k$.


Here is one way to reason, chosen for simplicity of calculations: Consider the unit vector $e=(1,0,0,\ldots,0)\in\mathbb R^n$. One way to measure how 'orthogonal' $e$ is to other vectors is to calculate the average of $(e\cdot x)^2$ as $x$ ranges over the unit sphere. If $S$ denotes the surface measure on the unit sphere corresponding to (normalized) area, then $$ \int |e\cdot y|^2 dS(y) =\int |y_1|^2 dS(y)=\frac{1}{n}\int \sum_{j=1}^n |y_j|^2 dS(y)=\frac{1}{n}. $$ Thus, in this sense, vectors are generally 'more' orthogonal in higher dimensional spaces.

Edit: This line of reasoning follows closely the argument given by JyrkiLahtonen in the comments above, as one sees by considering a random $\mathbb R^n$-valued vector $Y$, uniformly distributed on the unit sphere. If we consider the random variable $e\cdot Y$, then $$ E \; e\cdot Y=\int e\cdot y \;dS(y)=0, $$ because $S$ in invariant under the transformation $y\mapsto -y$. On the other hand $$ V(e\cdot Y)=\int |e\cdot y|^2 dS(y) =\frac{1}{n}, $$ as shown above. Therefore, intuitively, $e\cdot Y$ is small when $n$ is large. Rigorously, we can employ Chebyshev's inequality to obtain $$ P(|e\cdot Y|\geq \epsilon)\leq \frac{1}{n\epsilon^2}. $$


Here's an excerpt from Lecture 2 of Keith Ball's An Elementary Introduction to Modern Convex Geometry:


See the link for details, but as the image shows, the measure of a spherical cap cut off by a hyperplane which is $\varepsilon$ away from the origin is bounded above by the ratio between volume of a ball of radius $\sqrt{1-\varepsilon^2}$ and the volume of a ball of radius 1, that is, $(1-\varepsilon^2)^{n/2}$. So if $X$ and $Y$ are independent random unit vectors (uniform on the sphere), then $$ P(\langle X,Y\rangle < \varepsilon) \ge 1 - (1-\varepsilon^2)^{n/2} \ge 1 - e^{-n\varepsilon^2/2} $$ which is close to $1$ when $n$ is large (if $\varepsilon$ is fixed, at least).


As the brief proof showed below, it does not matter to suppose that the vector c is the diagonal vector of the n vector from the standard basis in the n-dimensional vector space with inner-product. It means that the projection vector of c onto vi is the same length(norm) with each other (irrelevant to i). Any randomly drawn vector is the same as c.

enter image description here


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