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Can somebody give me a clear explanation about logistic regression in bold below?

Logistic regression can be binomial or multinomial. Binomial or binary logistic regression deals with situations in which the observed outcome for a dependent variable can have only two possible types (for example, "dead" vs. "alive"). Multinomial logistic regression deals with situations where the outcome can have three or more possible types (e.g., "disease A" vs. "disease B" vs. "disease C"). In binary logistic regression, the outcome is usually coded as "0" or "1", as this leads to the most straightforward interpretation.[8] If a particular observed outcome for the dependent variable is the noteworthy possible outcome (referred to as a "success" or a "case") it is usually coded as "1" and the contrary outcome (referred to as a "failure" or a "noncase") as "0". Logistic regression is used to predict the odds of being a case based on the values of the independent variables (predictors). The odds are defined as the probability that a particular outcome is a case divided by the probability that it is a noncase.

Like other forms of regression analysis, logistic regression makes use of one or more predictor variables that may be either continuous or categorical data. Unlike ordinary linear regression, however, logistic regression is used for predicting binary outcomes of the dependent variable (treating the dependent variable as the outcome of a Bernoulli trial) rather than continuous outcomes. Given this difference, it is necessary that logistic regression take the natural logarithm of the odds of the dependent variable being a case (referred to as the logit or log-odds) to create a continuous criterion as a transformed version of the dependent variable. Thus the logit transformation is referred to as the link function in logistic regression—although the dependent variable in logistic regression is binomial, the logit is the continuous criterion upon which linear regression is conducted.[8]

The logit of success is then fit to the predictors using linear regression analysis. The predicted value of the logit is converted back into predicted odds via the inverse of the natural logarithm, namely the exponential function. Therefore, although the observed dependent variable in logistic regression is a zero-or-one variable, the logistic regression estimates the odds, as a continuous variable, that the dependent variable is a success (a case). In some applications the odds are all that is needed. In others, a specific yes-or-no prediction is needed for whether the dependent variable is or is not a case; this categorical prediction can be based on the computed odds of a success, with predicted odds above some chosen cut-off value being translated into a prediction of a success.

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A couple of key points in the bold part that I pick out:

1) Because you're wanting to fit a logistic function, doing the natural logarithm (and its inverse, the exponential) allows you to use (more common) linear regression techniques to fit the data.

2) Pulling out values of a continuous function for your discrete cases lets you use operations on continuous functions like differentiation, minimization, etc., to solve your discrete problem. The best-fit function of your logistic regression gives you your discrete cases just like the Gamma function gives values for the factorial function.

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