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Suppose G is a binary tree. Is G necessarily planar? Give a proof, or a counterexample.

My guess is that it is indeed planar but I am struggling to find a formal proof for this.

EDIT: Is there a proof that does not use Kuratowski's theorem? It was an exam question and we are not supposed to know that.

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  • $\begingroup$ Have you read about Kuratowski's theorem? $\endgroup$ – qaphla May 23 '14 at 23:50
  • $\begingroup$ The only thing that comes to mind is Wagner's theorem, which works, but is serious overkill. This is a really intuitively obvious result, and it feels like there should be a simple, intuitive proof, but I don't know how to do it. $\endgroup$ – user2357112 supports Monica May 23 '14 at 23:50
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    $\begingroup$ You can just give an explicit embedding of the graph into the plane. $\endgroup$ – Tunococ May 23 '14 at 23:51
  • $\begingroup$ Oh, of course. Just assign coordinates to everything and verify there are no intersections. That was simple. $\endgroup$ – user2357112 supports Monica May 23 '14 at 23:52
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Indeed it is true by Kuratowski's theorem or by the following argument which I will sketch below.

We induct on the number of vertices of the tree, $G$, the case where $G$ has only one vertex being obvious. Every tree has a vertex with degree one, call it $v$ and call the vertex it is connected to $u$. Remove $v$ and by induction, $G - v$ can be drawn in the plane with no crossings. Now in a small enough neighborhood surrounding $u$ one will only find the edges that contain $u$ as an endpoint. In this neighborhood it is easy to put the edge $(u,v)$ in without creating any crossings.

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    $\begingroup$ Way more intuitive than using Kuratowski's theorem ! $\endgroup$ – Manuel Lafond May 24 '14 at 2:10

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