A popular proof of the irrationality of $\sqrt2$ is to first assume that the number is rational. This means that $\sqrt2=a/b$ where $a$ and $b$ are integers. Another assumption is that $a$ and $b$ are coprime. It turns out that this leads to a contradiction. And the conclusion is that $\sqrt2$ is not rational (because the assumption of rationality led to a contradiction). But what about the second assumption? Logically, the conclusion could also be that $a$ and $b$ are not coprime..
How can this be resolved?
Thank you all for your comments. It cleared up my mind.
Three aspects of this kind of proof are: mathematical, logical, and didactical.
Mathematically, it is the case that any rational number can be written as a fraction with coprime numerator and denominator. But this point is often described in a way that is either literally a logical assumption, or in a way that is natural to interpret as a hidden logical assumption. In this case, the proof will have a flawed logic, because any of the two assumptions could be the cause of the contradiction. Didactically, this can cause confusion in the mind of the student, who might not be so accepting of the proofs conclusion. I used to be that student.
So, how to resolve it? Many of you provided explanations on the mathematical aspect, which are all correct. But my main point is not of not understanding the proof, but of the use of flawed logic which leads to not understanding the proof. I am sure that a lot of teachers think or say something along the lines of WLOG, but for many students, this makes the proof weaker, because it is not so convincing. When we present this proof to our students, we need to have this in mind.