The statement neither uses the logical implication sign nor "if... then..." language, so I think the confusion has not been addressed. What it does say is "X provided (A and B)". This means the statement X is true when you have determined both A and B as true. X is the statement "the alternating series... converges" and A and B are the clauses 1 and 2. We know that there is an implied "and" here between A and B because of the conventions of English and the use of "provided" without explicitly saying "or" between them.
To flip this around into the logical terms being discussed, this can be written as:
$$(A \wedge B) \implies X$$
Meaning that - as stated - this tells us we know X is true when A and B are both true, but we don't know whether X is true or false otherwise. However, can you say more? Just understanding that the logical view of the statement does not make the claim doesn't mean the claim is false. In fact, can you think of any convergent series where either A or B fail? What is actually proven in the text?
The point is that sometimes a theorem is stated loosely with language and you have to be careful to understand the English connotations. It is actually true that the series will diverge in other conditions. Sometimes, in English, we use the term "provided" to "loosely mean" if and only if. By "loosely mean" I just mean that this is not the textbook meaning, it is not how it is always or regularly employed, but sometimes in certain formulations, it is kind of understood. I think this is probably one of those uses, it has that kind of feel, if you were to bring it up to a teacher, they might explain that meaning, but it is kind of sloppy and unfair to infer that when it is not the real meaning of what is said. It should be corrected if the text actually proves the stronger result.