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Question:

Show the equation $x^2+y^2 \equiv1\pmod p$ has $p-1$ solutions if $p \equiv1\pmod4$, and $p+1$ solutions if $p \equiv 3\pmod4$

I'm really stuck on this one. Any help would be highly appreciated.

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    $\begingroup$ $p$ is a prime ? $\endgroup$ – DiffeoR Feb 20 '14 at 12:35
  • $\begingroup$ If $p=9$, the quadratic residues are $1,4,0,7,7,0,4,1,0$ and there are only $6$ solutions... $\endgroup$ – user21820 Feb 20 '14 at 12:56
  • $\begingroup$ @user21820 Are you just computing $x^2$ for $1,\ldots, 9$, and not $x^2 + y^2$ for all pairs? $\endgroup$ – Joe Tait Feb 20 '14 at 13:07
  • $\begingroup$ @JoeTait: Pairs of course. Did you get more than 6 solutions? If you count permutations, then 12. $\endgroup$ – user21820 Feb 20 '14 at 13:10
  • $\begingroup$ I see what you meant - I thought you were claiming you had listed all possible outcomes of $x^2 + y^2$, but you are pointing out that there are six pairs from the above that add to one. Sorry, just a misreading. $\endgroup$ – Joe Tait Feb 20 '14 at 13:18
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If $p$ is a prime of the form $4k+1$,

  Let $r$ be a primitive root mod $p$ (which can be proven by various means)

  Let $i = r^k$

  $i^2 = r^{2k} = -1$ (mod $p$) because $(i^2)^2 = r^{p-1} = 1$ (mod $p$)

  If $1 = x^2-(iy)^2 = (x+iy)(x-iy)$,

    Let $a = x+iy$

    $x = (a+a^{-1})2^{-1}$

    $y = (a-a^{-1})(2i)^{-1}$

  Therefore there is a bijection between $\{ (x,y) : x^2+y^2 = 1 \space(\text{mod } p)\}$ and $\{ a : a \in [1..p-1] \}$

If $p$ is a prime of the form $4k+3$,

  I can't prove it.

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  • $\begingroup$ Can anyone give a completely elementary proof for the second part? I'm still interested in seeing one. $\endgroup$ – user21820 Feb 21 '14 at 15:47

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