# How to integrate $\int\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}\ \mathrm dx$

I'm having a bit of trouble solving this integral: $$\int\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}dx$$

Here is my attempt at a solution:

I multiplied the numerator and the denominator of $$\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}$$ by $$\sqrt{x}$$, yielding $$\int\frac{\sqrt{x-x^2}}{x}dx.$$ Further simplification resulted in $$\int\frac{\sqrt{\frac{1}{4}-\left(x-\frac{1}{2}\right)^2}}{x}dx.$$ Using trigonometric substitution, I set $$x-\frac{1}{2}=\frac{1}{2}\sin\theta$$ and solving for the differential $$dx$$ got $$dx=\frac{1}{2}\cos\theta.$$ Substituting this all back into $$\int\frac{\sqrt{\frac{1}{4}-(x-\frac{1}{2})^2}}{x}dx$$ (and some simplification later) yielded $$\frac{1}{2}\int{\frac{\cos^2\theta}{\sin\theta+1}}d\theta.$$ By substituting $$1-\sin^2\theta$$ for $$\cos^2\theta$$ I obtained $$\frac{1}{2}\int{\frac{1}{\sin\theta+1}-\frac{\sin^2\theta}{\sin\theta+1}d\theta}.$$ The issue I'm having is trying to solve this resultant integral. If there is an easier method to solve the problem, that would be graciously accepted.

Set $\sqrt{x} = \sin(t)$. We then have $x = \sin^2(t)$. Hence, $1-x = \cos^2(t)$. This gives us \begin{align} \int \dfrac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}dx & = \int \dfrac{\cos(t)}{\sin(t)} 2 \sin(t) \cos(t) dt = 2\int \cos^2(t) dt\\ & = \int(1+\cos(2t))dt = t + \dfrac{\sin(2t)}2 + c\\ & = \arcsin(\sqrt{x}) + \sqrt{x}\sqrt{1-x} + c \end{align}

• As $\sqrt{1-x}=|\cos t,|$ should the assumption that $\cos t\ge0$ not be included? Nov 30, 2013 at 5:04
• @labbhattacharjee Not necessary. Since $\sqrt{x} > 0$, I restrict my $t$ from $0$ to $\pi/2$.
– user17762
Dec 1, 2013 at 5:03
• even that conclusion should be explicit :) Dec 1, 2013 at 5:08

Let $$u=\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}$$

Then $$u^2=\frac{1-x}{x}=\frac{1}{x}-1$$. Hence $$x=\frac{1}{u^2+1}$$ $$dx=-\frac{2u}{(u^2+1)^2}$$

$$-2 \int \frac{u^2}{(u^2+1)^2}du=-2 \int \frac{u^2+1}{(u^2+1)^2}du+2 \int \frac{1}{(u^2+1)^2}du$$ which can be calculated integrating by parts $$\frac{1}{u^2+1}$$ or via a standard trig substitution.

• @BarryCipra Thank you, not enough coffee :) Mar 12, 2021 at 16:58

Alternative solution, making the substitution $x=t^2$ integral becomes :

$$I=\int\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}\;\mathrm{d}x = 2\int\sqrt{1-t^2}\;\mathrm{d}t =2J$$

But that means :

$$J=\int\sqrt{1-t^2}\;\mathrm{d}t = \int\frac{1-t^2}{\sqrt{1-t^2}}\;\mathrm{d}t = \arcsin t - \int\frac{t^2}{\sqrt{1-t^2}}\;\mathrm{d}t =$$ ... via per partes ...

$$= \arcsin t + t\sqrt{1-t^2}-\int\sqrt{1-t^2}\;\mathrm{d}t = \arcsin t + t\sqrt{1-t^2} -J$$

Therefore

$$I=2J =\arcsin t + t\sqrt{1-t^2} = \arcsin \sqrt{x} + \sqrt{x}\sqrt{1-x}$$

However, your original way is not bad after all, if you continued - see :

$$\frac{1}{2}\int\frac{\cos^2{\theta}}{1+\sin\theta}\;\mathrm{d}\theta = \frac{1}{2}\int\frac{1-\sin^2{\theta}}{1+\sin\theta}\;\mathrm{d}\theta = \frac{1}{2}\int\frac{(1-\sin{\theta})(1+\sin{\theta})}{1+\sin\theta}\;\mathrm{d}\theta = \frac{1}{2}\int1-\sin{\theta}\;\mathrm{d}\theta$$

Therefore

$$I=\frac{1}{2}\theta+\frac{1}{2}\cos{\theta}=\frac{1}{2}\arcsin{(2x-1)}+\frac{1}{2}\sqrt{1-(2x-1)^2}= \frac{1}{2}\arcsin{(2x-1)}+\sqrt{x^2-x}$$

and these results are indeed equivalent, because

$$\frac{1}{2}\arcsin{(2x-1)}=\arcsin\sqrt{x}-\frac{\pi}{4}$$ multiplying by $2$ and taking sin of both sides :

$$2x-1=-\cos\left( 2\arcsin\sqrt{x}\right)=2\sin^2\arcsin\sqrt{x}-1=2x-1$$

Or let $\theta=\alpha-\pi/2$, then

$$x=\frac{1+\sin\theta}{2}=\frac{1-\cos\alpha}{2}=\sin^2\left(\frac{\alpha}{2}\right)$$

So

$$\frac{\theta}{2}=\frac{\alpha}{2}-\frac{\pi}{4}=\arcsin\sqrt{x}-\frac{\pi}{4}$$

Integrate by parts $$\int\frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt{x}}dx =\sqrt x \sqrt{1-x}-\int \frac{d(\sqrt x)}{\sqrt{1-x}} = \sqrt{x(1-x)}-\sin^{-1}\sqrt x$$

Integrate $$\int \frac{\sqrt{1-x}}{\sqrt x} dx$$

let $$\begin{equation} \tag 1 x=t^2, \,\,\,\,\, dx=2t\, dt \end{equation}$$ now; $$\int \frac{\sqrt{1-t^2}}{t} dt$$ $$\begin{equation} \tag{as dt=\frac{dx}{2t}} \int 2 \sqrt{1 - t^2} dt \end{equation}$$ $$\begin{equation} \tag 2 2 \int \sqrt{1 - t^2} dt \end{equation}$$ $$\begin{equation} \tag 3 2 \left[\frac{t}{2}\sqrt{1-t^2}+\frac{1}{2}\sin^{-1} (t) \right] \end{equation}$$

put $$t=\sqrt{x}$$, to get answer.

• I think you mean "put $t=\sqrt x$" at the end, not $t=x^2$. Mar 12, 2021 at 16:35
• This is virtually unreadable. Use MathJax delimiters \$ instead of code blocks. Mar 12, 2021 at 18:44
• @K.defaoite did I fix it before your comment? Go easy on new contributors - you could have edited it instead of insulting it. Mar 12, 2021 at 20:24