I've recently learned about ultraproducts, but the source I learned from almost immediately after the definitions restricted to talking about countably incomplete ultrafilters. I know that the existence of countably complete ultrafilters is a large cardinal issue, but aside from this, is there a reason to focus on the countably incomplete case? Do ultraproducts (or even just ultrapowers) with a countably complete ultrafilter behave very differently from the countably incomplete ones?
It would be great to have an example of the kinds of differences that happen, ideally in a fairly down-to-earth setting (maybe groups, or fields, or graphs?). The few places I've seen talk about countably complete ultrafilters all seem to be taking ultrapowers of models of ZFC, which is a bit much for me to grasp at this point. Since I just want to see the differences, it's fine with me if some set-theoretic hypotheses are needed to make the examples work.