It's not the difference in material being taught, it's how it is presented by the educators.
Professors could teach the same exact material at two separate universities, however...the presentation and time devoted to a class where the professor is a heavy researcher may not get a great deal of attention because they're under pressure to spend time on their own pursuits and teaching is just a duty they have to fulfill. On the other hand, that could be the complete opposite in some cases where the professor is incredibly passionate about the topic and interested in making sure everyone in their class is able to understand concepts.
So with this in mind, I would say yes there is a large difference in how the material is presented, not the material itself. Even at really great top 10 universities this can happen. Nothing guarantees a genuinely 'good' education.
As to your second point, the sad reality is that the piece of paper you obtain does to some degree determine how successful you can become...if you don't accept the fact that you need to work extremely hard to succeed. It's definitely possible to be wildly successful if you forge the path for yourself, no matter where you get your degree. If you want to just get a desk job at a company and settle into a nice career, then the institution will matter because employers believe that someone who goes to a top 10 has more drive and can be more easily molded to working.